Philippine Historiography: Detecting Historical Forgery

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PRIMARY SOURCE are those produced at the same time as the ______, period or subject being studied.

event

SECONDARY SOURCE are those sources used by the author who used primary sources to produce the ______.

materials

EXAMPLE OF PRIMARY SOURCE: Photographs that may reflect social conditions of historical realities and ______ life.

everyday

Cartoons for political expression or ______.

propaganda

Material evidence of prehistoric past like cave drawings, old ______ and charts.

syllabaries

Oral history or recordings by electronic means of accounts of eyewitness or participants; the recordings are then ______ and used for research.

transcribed

Cases of forgery and mislabeling are common in Philippine __________.

historiography

One example is the discovery of Ambeth Ocampo of the alleged draft of Rizal’s third novel, the __________.

MAKAMISA

The stacks of writings were labeled Borrador Del Noli Me __________.

Tangere

The story of Roman Roque who allegedly forged the signature of Gen. Urbano Lacuna that led to the captivity of Gen. Emilio __________.

Aguinaldo

Historians should be able to conduct external and internal criticism of the source, especially of the sources which can age in __________.

centuries

EXTERNAL CRITICISM: The practice of verifying the authenticity of the evidence by examining its physical characteristics, consistency with the historical characteristics of the time when it was produced, and the materials used for the evidence. Type of ink __________ used.

Language

One of the scandalous cases of deception in Philippine history is the hoax _____ of Kalantiaw

Code

Ferdinand Marcos claimed that he was a decorated World War II soldier who led a guerilla unit called 'Ang Maharlika'. This claim was disproven when historians counterchecked Marcos's claim with the war records of the United States. This shows how _____ can propagate without rigorous historical research

deceptions

Historians examine the circumstances of production and truthfulness of evidence by looking at the author of the source, its context, the agenda behind its creation, the knowledge which informed it, and intended purposes to determine its _____

factuality

The document known as the Code of Kalantiaw was regarded as an important precolonial document until _____

1968

Students of history widely believed Ferdinand Marcos's claim about leading a guerilla unit called 'Ang Maharlika' because he had _____ to show

war medals

Historians select the most relevant and meaningful historical sources for the subject matter they are studying through rigorous historical _____

research

Delve into the challenges of Philippine historiography by examining cases of forgery and mislabeling in historical sources. Learn about the discovery of alleged drafts and forged signatures, such as the case of Rizal's third novel and Gen. Urbano Lacuna. Test your knowledge on detecting historical deception.

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