Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Pharmacogenetics Key Points

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What is the process by which cells carry a drug across their membrane by engulfing the drug particles in a vesicle?

Pinocytosis

Which type of drugs can pass rapidly through the mucous membrane of the GI tract?

Lipid-soluble drugs

What is the term for the movement of the drug from the circulation to body tissues?

Distribution

What is the primary site of drug metabolism in the body?

Liver

Which condition adversely affects glomerular filtration?

Postrenal conditions

What is the study of the effects of drugs on the body?

Pharmacodynamics

What refers to the amount of drug needed to elicit a specific physiologic response to a drug?

Potency

What is the term for the time it takes for a drug in the body to be reduced by half?

$Half-life$

What is a compound that is metabolized into an active pharmacologic substance?

$Prodrug$

What does the therapeutic index describe?

$ED50/TD50$ relationship

What allows therapeutic effects to be obtained while a steady state is reached?

Loading dose

What are common tests used to determine renal function?

Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

Which phase describes the movement of the drug through the body after administration?

Pharmacokinetic phase

What is the process known as when a drug in solid form disintegrates into small particles and combines with a liquid to form a solution?

Dissolution

How does absorption across the mucosal lining of the small intestine occur?

Passive transport, active transport, or pinocytosis

Which process involves drugs moving across the cell membrane from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration?

Diffusion

What is required for active absorption to move the drug against a concentration gradient?

Energy

Which phase is composed of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion processes?

Pharmacokinetic phase

What is the movement of the drug into the bloodstream after administration called?

Drug absorption

What does facilitated diffusion rely on to move the drug from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration?

Carrier protein

What is required for active transport to move the drug against a concentration gradient?

Energy

In which phase does drug distribution occur?

Pharmacokinetic phase

What enables drugs taken orally to be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract into the bloodstream?

Dissolution

What are the processes involved in the pharmacokinetic phase?

Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion

Which term refers to the time it takes for a drug to reach the minimum effective concentration (MEC) after administration?

Onset

What is the term used for drugs that affect multiple receptor sites?

Nonspecific

What is the term for a skin reaction caused by exposure to sunlight as a result of drug interaction?

Photosensitivity reaction

In pharmacokinetic interactions, what types of changes occur in one or more drugs?

Altered absorption and distribution

What causes an individual with drug tolerance to require a higher dosage of drug to achieve the same therapeutic response?

Decreased responsiveness to a drug

Which family do most receptors, which are protein in nature, belong to?

Cell membrane-embedded enzymes

What is the term for drugs that elicit only moderate activity when binding to receptors and also prevent receptor activation by other drugs?

Partial agonists

What is the term for unintentional, unexpected reactions to drug therapy that occur at normal drug dosages?

Adverse drug reactions

What is the name for the changes that occur in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of one or more drugs due to interaction with other drugs?

Drug interactions

Which term refers to a decreased responsiveness to a drug over the course of therapy?

Tolerance

What do drugs that activate receptors and produce a desired response called?

Agonists

Test your knowledge of key concepts in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenetics. This quiz covers the movement of drugs through the body, drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and related concepts.

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