1.1 & 1.2

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When was the planet Earth formed?

About 4.5 billion years ago

What is the name given to molten rock when it is still below the surface?


What is the date after which there will only be less extraction of a mineral called?

Peak mineral

What is the most well-known rock that is in danger of being used up due to extraction and use?


What is the layer between the dense core and the light crust of the Earth called?


What term is used to describe the date at which the most coal is being extracted, after which it will decline?

Peak coal

What are examples of sedimentary rocks?

Limestone, sandstone, and shale

How are metamorphic rocks formed?

Metamorphic rocks are created from existing rocks under high heat or pressure, or both.

What are examples of metamorphic rocks?

Marble and slate

What were the rocks like when the Earth's crust first formed?


What causes the changes in structure that lead to metamorphic rocks?

Heat and pressure

How are sedimentary rocks formed?

From sediments built up over time from particles released by eroded rocks.

What type of mining involves digging tunnels into the ground to reach mineral deposits that are too deep to be removed by surface mining?

Sub-surface mining

What is the term for a drift mine entered by an adit?

Horizontal tunnel

How are the deepest deposits reached in sub-surface mining?

By digging a vertical shaft

Why is shaft mining more difficult compared to open-pit mining?

Supply of fresh air and water drainage has to be provided

What is the miners' primary job in sub-surface mining?

To ensure machinery works correctly and safely

Why is sub-surface mining more expensive and technically challenging than horizontal or slope tunnelling?

Because it involves digging vertical shafts

What are the factors that mining companies need to consider before starting a new mine?

Costs of exploration and extraction, geology, climate, accessibility, environmental impact, supply and demand.

Why is developing surface mines considered easier than developing mines underground?

There are usually fewer technical difficulties in open-pit mining, leading to a lower extraction cost per tonne.

What are greenfield sites in the context of mining?

Areas that have never been mined for minerals.

What is the strike rate for finding new gold deposits?

As low as 1:1000.

What are brownfield sites in the mining industry?

Areas that have already been mined and may still contain valuable deposits.

How can deposits near the surface be extracted?

By open-pit mining.

How can mineral deposits on the Earth's surface be found using remote sensing methods?

By photographing an area of land from the air and carefully analyzing the images for signs of minerals.

What is the unique radiation pattern produced by weathered mineral deposits at the Earth's surface used for?

To be detected by satellites and recorded for analysis.

How do some satellites locate valuable mineral ores in rocks below the Earth's surface?

By sending signals to the surface and collecting reflected signals.

What role do computers play in analyzing satellite data for mineral presence in a region of interest?

They process the data to identify any minerals present in the area.

In what conditions can remote sensing methods for mineral detection operate?

In all weathers, through complete cloud cover, and at night.

What term is used to describe a rock with enough of an important element to make it worth mining?


Test your knowledge on the peak mineral concept, which predicts the point when the extraction of minerals reaches its maximum level that will gradually decline. Explore topics related to the potential environmental impact and limited availability of resources like coal.

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