Orthopaedic Trauma Overview

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41 Questions

What is the goal of stabilizing the pelvis with an external fixator in cases of pelvic fractures?

To save life by stopping haemorrhage

What is the main cause of compartment syndrome?

All of the above

What is the commonest site of fracture in the elderly with osteoporosis due to minimal trauma?

Pelvic ramus

Which limb is most commonly affected by compartment syndrome?

Thigh

What is the 30-day mortality rate for neck of femur fractures?

6.5%

What is the usual cause of patella fractures?

Direct blow onto the knee

What is the main symptom of compartment syndrome?

Pain out of proportion to injury

In cases of tibial shaft fractures, what determines the choice between conservative and surgical treatment?

Displacement and ability to straight leg raise

Which condition may lead to irreversible muscle and neurovascular damage?

Compartment syndrome

What is the pathophysiology of compartment syndrome?

Bleeding and tissue swelling leading to increased interstitial pressure

What is the most common cause of femur fractures in nonambulatory infants?

Non-accidental trauma

What is the most common cause of death in children due to deliberate actions against them?

Non-accidental trauma

Which fracture pattern is considered a red flag for non-accidental injury?

Transphyseal separation of the distal humerus

What is the most common cause of fractures in children under 1 year of age?

Non-accidental trauma

Which type of fracture is usually treated conservatively, unless there is intra-articular disruption or avascular watershed area involvement?

Avulsion fracture of the base of 5th metatarsal

What is the definition of a fracture?

Disruption in continuity of bone

Which type of fracture suggests a twisting mechanism of injury?

Spiral

What is the term for a fracture in which there are more than 2 pieces of bone?

Comminuted

What is the main difference between an open and closed fracture?

Whether there is a skin breach

What should be monitored specifically in certain fractures?

Compartment pressures

Which type of fracture involves the growth plate in children?

Greenstick

What is a characteristic difference between paediatric and adult fractures?

Cortical bone is more porous in paediatric fractures compared to adult fractures

Which type of fracture exhibits plastic deformation in children?

Torus

What is the most common type of fracture in the upper limb trauma of children?

Supracondylar humeral fracture

When does remodelling occur in paediatric fractures after injury?

6 weeks after injury

What is the reported rate of spontaneous recovery for secondary palsies associated with fracture manipulation?

70%

What type of fractures present a higher risk of laceration or entrapment of the radial nerve?

Spiral fractures of the middle 1/3

What can help determine the degree of nerve injury and monitor the rate of nerve regeneration?

EMG and nerve conduction studies

What type of fractures are most commonly associated with neuropraxia?

Transverse fractures of the distal 1/3

What is essential for an acceptable result in the nonsurgical treatment of humeral fractures?

Minimal angular deformity

What is indicated for most forearm fractures?

Surgical intervention

Which of the following is a common early symptom of necrotising fasciitis?

Intense and severe pain out of proportion to external signs of infection

What is the most critical symptom of necrotising fasciitis, usually occurring within 4 to 5 days?

Severe fall in blood pressure

What is the most important factor for survival in necrotising fasciitis?

Early diagnosis

What is LRINEC used for in the context of necrotising fasciitis?

To facilitate early diagnosis

Which of the following is a potential complication of necrotising fasciitis?

Renal failure and sepsis (rhabdomyolysis)

What is a critical symptom of necrotising fasciitis usually within 4 to 5 days?

Severe fall in blood pressure and toxic shock from bacterial poisons

What is the recommended management for necrotising fasciitis that progresses rapidly and can result in death?

All of the above options

Which factor is most important for the survival of a patient with necrotising fasciitis?

Time to surgical debridement

What characteristic fluid is typically observed during surgical debridement of necrotising fasciitis?

"Dirty dishwater" fluid with grey coloured tissues

What complication is associated with necrotising fasciitis and may require amputation to save life?

Limb Threatening Injuries

This quiz provides an overview of orthopaedic trauma, covering topics such as fracture description, types of fractures, avulsion injuries, and sites of bone injury. The quiz is prepared by Mr Georgios Arealis, MD, PhD, FRCS.

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