Origin of Life on Earth

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What is the proposed origin of mitochondria and plastids?

They were formerly small prokaryotes living within larger host cells

What event is associated with the sudden appearance of fossils resembling modern animal phyla in the Cambrian period?

The Cambrian explosion

What marks the most widespread and diverse land animals including arthropods and tetrapods?

Colonization of Land

When did the human lineage of tetrapods evolve?

Around 6-7 million years ago

What caused the extinction of many prokaryotic groups that could NOT adapt to increased atmospheric O2 levels?

Accumulation of oxygen produced by oxygenic photosynthesis

What is a common characteristic shared by mitochondria and plastids as evidence of the endosymbiotic theory?

Utilization of electron transport enzyme similar to prokaryotes

What is the proposed age of the oldest fossils of eukaryotic cells?

1.8 billion years

What process caused the accumulation of oxygen in the atmosphere from about 2.7 to 2.4 billion years ago?

Oxygenic photosynthesis

What is the driving force behind the Cambrian explosion?

The evolution of novel characteristics

What is the significance of the endosymbiont theory in the evolution of eukaryotic cells?

It proposes that mitochondria and plastids were formerly small prokaryotes living within larger host cells.

What event can open habitats that may result in adaptive radiation?

Mass extinctions

Prokaryotes were Earth’s sole inhabitants for more than 1.5 billion years.

True

The rise of oxygen in the atmosphere from about 2.7 to 2.4 billion years ago caused the 'oxygen revolution'.

True

The Cambrian explosion refers to the sudden appearance of fossils resembling modern plant phyla.

False

Topic 1, part 1

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