Neural Basis of Working Memory

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45 Questions

What is the main function of working memory?

How do some theorists differentiate working memory from short-term memory?

What was the original term used for what is now known as working memory?

What concept has replaced or included the older concept of short-term memory according to most theorists today?

What is the maximum number of digits some individuals have shown impressive enlargements of their digit span to?

How did one person studied by Ericsson and his colleagues encode chunks of digits?

According to Ericsson and Kintsch, what is improved through practicing memory skills like chunking?

What is a commonly used measure of working memory capacity involving a dual-task paradigm?

What did Daneman and Carpenter invent in 1980 to measure working memory capacity?

What did Daneman and Carpenter initially believe was needed to measure working memory capacity?

What do we know now about measuring the capacity of working memory?

What did Daneman and Carpenter believe was needed to measure working memory capacity?

Who introduced the multicomponent model of working memory?

What did Miller suggest as the capacity limit associated with short-term memory?

Who proposed that working memory has a capacity of about four chunks in young adults?

According to Cowan's model, what is the capacity of working memory representations?

What did Baddeley add to the multicomponent model of working memory in 2000?

Who conducted ablation experiments on the prefrontal cortex over 100 years ago?

Who proposed the notion of 'long-term working memory'?

According to Cowan, what do representations in working memory form?

Who extended Cowan's model by adding a more narrow focus of attention that holds only one chunk at a time?

What does the central executive do in the multicomponent model of working memory?

What is the main function of working memory?

Who coined the term 'working memory' in the 1960s?

What did Atkinson and Shiffrin use the term 'working memory' to describe in 1968?

According to most theorists today, what does working memory emphasize more than short-term memory?

What is a commonly used measure of working memory capacity involving a dual-task paradigm?

What is the maximum number of digits some individuals have shown impressive enlargements of their digit span to?

What did Daneman and Carpenter invent in 1980 to measure working memory capacity?

According to Ericsson and Kintsch, what is improved through practicing memory skills like chunking?

What concept has replaced or included the older concept of short-term memory according to most theorists today?

Who conducted ablation experiments on the prefrontal cortex over 100 years ago?

According to Cowan, what do representations in working memory form?

What did Baddeley add to the multicomponent model of working memory in 2000?

Who introduced the multicomponent model of working memory?

What is the capacity limit associated with short-term memory, as suggested by Miller in 1956?

Who proposed the notion of 'long-term working memory'?

What did Cowan propose as the capacity of working memory in young adults?

What is the main function of the central executive in the multicomponent model of working memory?

Who conducted ablation experiments on the prefrontal cortex over 100 years ago?

According to Cowan, what is regarded as a subset of long-term memory representations?

Who extended Cowan's model by adding a more narrow focus of attention that holds only one chunk at a time?

What did Anders Ericsson and Walter Kintsch introduce regarding long-term memory?

What is improved through practicing memory skills like chunking according to Ericsson and Kintsch?

What did Baddeley add to the multicomponent model of working memory in 2000?

Summary

Neural Basis and Theories of Working Memory

  • Hitzig and Ferrier conducted ablation experiments on the prefrontal cortex over 100 years ago, concluding its importance for cognitive processes.
  • Carlyle Jacobsen and colleagues in 1935 showed the deleterious effect of prefrontal ablation on delayed response.
  • The multicomponent model of working memory introduced in 1974 by Baddeley and Hitch contains the central executive, phonological loop, and visuospatial sketchpad.
  • The central executive directs attention, suppresses irrelevant information, and coordinates cognitive processes.
  • The phonological loop stores phonological information and prevents its decay, while the visuospatial sketchpad stores visual and spatial information.
  • Baddeley extended the model in 2000 by adding the episodic buffer, integrating various types of information and linking working memory and long-term memory.
  • Anders Ericsson and Walter Kintsch introduced the notion of "long-term working memory", where parts of long-term memory effectively function as working memory.
  • Cowan does not regard working memory as separate from long-term memory, with representations in working memory being a subset of long-term memory representations.
  • Cowan's model consists of long-term memory representations that are activated and a focus of attention with a limited capacity, holding up to four activated representations.
  • Oberauer extended Cowan's model by adding a more narrow focus of attention that holds only one chunk at a time.
  • Working memory is widely acknowledged to have limited capacity, with early quantification of the capacity limit associated with short-term memory being the "magical number seven" suggested by Miller in 1956.
  • Cowan proposed that working memory has a capacity of about four chunks in young adults, and fewer in children and old adults.

Neural Basis and Theories of Working Memory

  • Hitzig and Ferrier conducted ablation experiments on the prefrontal cortex over 100 years ago, concluding its importance for cognitive processes.
  • Carlyle Jacobsen and colleagues in 1935 showed the deleterious effect of prefrontal ablation on delayed response.
  • The multicomponent model of working memory introduced in 1974 by Baddeley and Hitch contains the central executive, phonological loop, and visuospatial sketchpad.
  • The central executive directs attention, suppresses irrelevant information, and coordinates cognitive processes.
  • The phonological loop stores phonological information and prevents its decay, while the visuospatial sketchpad stores visual and spatial information.
  • Baddeley extended the model in 2000 by adding the episodic buffer, integrating various types of information and linking working memory and long-term memory.
  • Anders Ericsson and Walter Kintsch introduced the notion of "long-term working memory", where parts of long-term memory effectively function as working memory.
  • Cowan does not regard working memory as separate from long-term memory, with representations in working memory being a subset of long-term memory representations.
  • Cowan's model consists of long-term memory representations that are activated and a focus of attention with a limited capacity, holding up to four activated representations.
  • Oberauer extended Cowan's model by adding a more narrow focus of attention that holds only one chunk at a time.
  • Working memory is widely acknowledged to have limited capacity, with early quantification of the capacity limit associated with short-term memory being the "magical number seven" suggested by Miller in 1956.
  • Cowan proposed that working memory has a capacity of about four chunks in young adults, and fewer in children and old adults.

Description

Test your knowledge about the neural basis and key theories of working memory, including the multicomponent model by Baddeley and Hitch, the role of prefrontal cortex, and different viewpoints on working memory capacity.

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