Middle Childhood Development Quiz

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177 Questions

What contributes to resolving Industry vs. Inferiority positively, according to Erikson's theory?

Experiences that lead to the development of a sense of competence

What is a key aspect of self-concept refinement during middle childhood?

Organizing observations of behaviors and internal states into general dispositions

How do children's cognitive development and feedback from others affect the changing structure of their self-concept?

Combine typical experiences and behaviors into stable psychological dispositions

What is the perspective taking skill crucial for, according to George Mead's perspective?

Developing a self-concept based on personality traits

What capacity does middle childhood bring, according to the text?

Capacity for recursive thought

What is the main consequence of resolving Industry vs. Inferiority negatively, based on the text?

Pessimism and lack of confidence in own ability to do things well

What is the key outcome of the Industry vs. Inferiority stage, according to Erikson's theory?

Developing a sense of competence at useful skills and tasks

What type of coping mechanism do middle childhood children use when they appraise a situation as changeable?

Problem-centered coping

How do middle childhood children explain emotions?

By referring to internal states rather than external events

What drives middle childhood children to make amends and strive for self-improvement?

Guilt

Between which ages do children become more aware of circumstances likely to spark mixed emotions?

6 and 12

What enhances children's moral understanding in middle childhood?

Notions of personal choice

What type of coping mechanism do middle childhood children use when they appraise a situation as unchangeable?

Emotion-centered coping

What do middle childhood children experience when their actions are not under their control?

Shame

What do mastery oriented children attribute their success to?

Their ability and effort

How do learned helplessness children interpret failure?

As a result of their inability to change and control factors

What do mastery oriented children focus on?

Learning goals

What is the incremental view of ability associated with?

Belief that ability can increase through effort

What is the term for an expectation or belief that can influence behaviors, thus causing the belief to come true?

Self-fulfilling prophecy

Which type of praise emphasizes a child's traits when they succeed?

Person praise

What intervention encourages learned helplessness children to believe that they can overcome failure by exerting more effort and using better strategies?

Attribution retraining

Which group of children is less often targets of parental anger and cope more effectively with adversity after a divorce?

Children with easy temperament

What is the long-term consequence of divorce on children's academic achievement, self-esteem, social competence, and emotional and behavioral adjustment?

Slightly lower scores

How do girls typically respond to divorce, according to the text?

Internalizing reactions like crying, self-criticism, and withdrawal

Which group has a higher risk for adjustment problems in divorce, according to the text?

Boys

What percentage of tenth graders have tried at least one illegal drug?

39%

What is the percentage of births to unwed mothers in Bulgaria?

87%

What percentage of teenagers who had sexual intercourse become pregnant?

13%

What is the graduation rate in the USA?

75%

Which perspective describes adolescence as a period resembling an era when humans evolved?

Storm and stress perspective

What is the term for the first menstruation in girls?

Menarche

Which region of the brain becomes a more effective executive during adolescence?

Prefrontal cortex

What is the most common nutritional problem of adolescents?

Iron deficiency

What eating disorder involves dieting, exercise, binge eating, and throwing up?

Bulimia

What has been the trend in North American attitudes towards premarital sex over the past 40 years?

Becoming more liberal

What percentage of sexually active teenagers in the US are at risk for unintended pregnancy due to no contraceptive use?

18%

What age group has the highest rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the country?

People age 15 to 24

What is the most serious STD that often manifests 8–10 years later and is often infected during adolescence?

AIDS

What is the recommended daily calorie intake range for boys during adolescence?

2400 to 3200 calories

What is the term for the visible signs of sexual maturity that serve as additional signs of sexual maturity?

Secondary sexual characteristics

What is the term for the first ejaculation in boys?

Spermarche

What is the term for the capacity developed in formal operational adolescents to come up with new, more general logical rules through internal reflection?

Abstract operational thinking

What is the term for the approach when faced with a problem formal operational adolescents start with a hypothesis or prediction about variables that might affect an outcome from which they deduce logical, testable inferences?

Hypothetico-deductive reasoning

In the pendulum problem, what do formal operational adolescents hypothesize will affect the pendulum?

Length of string, weight of object, how high the object is raised, how forcefully the object is pushed

What can formal operational adolescents understand how to do in the pendulum problem that concrete operational children cannot?

Understand how to test one variable at a time by controlling for the other ones

What is the term for the ability to think about language as a system?

Metalinguistic awareness

Which ability becomes more selective during adolescence and better adapted to the changing demands of tasks?

Attention

What is the term for the conscious, strategic recall that enables new information to be used flexibly and adaptively in contexts outside the original learning situation?

Explicit memory

What type of tasks involve determining spatial relationships by considering the orientation of the surrounding environment?

Spatial perception tasks

Which group shows an advantage in reading and writing achievement in adolescence?

Girls

What is the term for the adolescents' belief that they are the focus of everyone else’s attention and concern?

Imaginary audience

Which type of reasoning involves coordinating theories with evidence?

Scientific reasoning

What is the term for the analysis of complete visual forms?

Spatial visualization tasks

Which ability becomes more effective during adolescence, improving storage, representation, and retrieval of information?

Strategies

Which group shows an advantage in mental rotation tasks?

Boys

What is the term for the adolescents' belief that they have an inflated opinion of their own importance?

Personal fable

What is the term for the ability to evaluate the logic of verbal statements without referring to real-world circumstances?

Propositional thought

What is the most common psychological problem of adolescence?

Depression

What triggers peer conformity in young people?

High sensation seeking

What is the gender difference in suicide rate during adolescence?

More males than females

What parenting style helps prevent peer conformity in adolescents?

Authoritative parenting

According to Erikson, what is an identity crisis?

A temporary period of distress as adolescents experiment with alternatives before settling on values and goals

What does role confusion in adolescence refer to?

Lack of direction and self-definition, with earlier psychosocial conflicts unresolved

What does Erikson believe adolescents go through in the process of forming their identity?

Inner soul searching and sifting through childhood characteristics to combine with emerging traits and commitments

What is the outcome of successful psychosocial development in infancy and childhood, according to Erikson?

A positive resolution of identity versus role confusion

What is the primary influence on the evolution of adolescents' self-concept?

Cultural context and social influences

What typically triggers psychological distancing from parents during puberty?

Pubertal hormonal changes

What characterizes effective parenting of adolescents, according to the text?

Balancing autonomy and monitoring

What characterizes adolescent friendships, as per the text?

Characterized by intimacy and loyalty

At what age does dating in adolescence typically evolve from casual relationships to more intimate and steady relationships?

16

What contributes to positive romantic relationships in adolescence, according to the text?

Secure attachment with parents

What are the paths to identity, as mentioned in the text?

Identity diffusion, moratorium, identity foreclosure, and identity achievement

What do Erikson's theory suggest that adolescents need for decision-making and vocation selection?

Autonomy and initiative

What typically happens to self-esteem in mid to late adolescence, according to the text?

It generally rises, affecting adjustment and sociability

What do peer groups become increasingly characterized by in adolescence?

Tight-knit cliques and crowds

What are the different views on self between cultural-majority and cultural-minority adolescents, as per the text?

Cultural-majority adolescents have a more positive self-view

What is the key aspect of adolescent development crucial for positive adjustment and sociability?

Rising self-esteem

What is the major personality attainment of adolescence according to Erikson's theory?

Identity

What do researchers evaluate in progress of identity development?

Exploration of alternatives and commitment to self-chosen values and goals

What is associated with poor adjustment in the context of identity development?

Ruminative exploration

What supports positive self-esteem in adolescents?

Authoritative parenting and encouragement from teachers

Which factor is NOT related to promoting healthy identity development in adolescents?

Peer competition

What can foster a strong, secure ethnic identity among minority adolescents?

Supportive parents, peers, and schools

What does bicultural identity offer according to the text?

Emotional and social benefits

According to Kohlberg's theory of moral development, at which stages can moral maturity be found?

Stages 3 and 4

What influences moral reasoning and behavior in adolescents according to the text?

Warm, rational parenting

What may influence gender intensification in adolescence?

Pubertal changes

What do adolescent friendships influence, as per the text?

Self-concept, identity, and stress management

What do critics challenge in Kohlberg's theory of moral development?

Moral judgments vary based on context and motivations

What do adolescents' moral reasoning about conflicts between personal choice and community obligations display, according to the text?

More subtle reasoning

What is one of the defining features of emerging adulthood according to Jeffery Arnett?

Frequent changes in living arrangements

What is the current average marriage age for women in contemporary urban settings?

27

What is one of the areas of exploration for emerging adults according to the text?

Frequent moves and residence changes

What is the average marriage age for men in contemporary urban settings?

29

What is the term for cognitive development beyond Piaget's formal operational stage?

Postformal thought

Which cognitive change in emerging adulthood involves viewing all knowledge as embedded in a framework of thought?

Relativistic thinking

What type of thinking involves dividing information, values, and authority into right and wrong, good and bad, we and they?

Dualistic thinking

What is the term for reflections on how we arrive at facts, beliefs, and ideas?

Epistemic cognition

What type of individual reflection fosters advances in epistemic cognition?

Arguing with oneself over competing ideas

What contributes to fine tuning of the prefrontal cognitive control network in emerging adulthood?

Growth and myelination of stimulated neural fibers

What is the term for the ability to evaluate the logic of verbal statements without referring to real-world circumstances?

Postformal thought

What type of interaction induces young people to consider the rationality of their thought processes?

Peer interaction

What type of thinking involves formulating a more satisfying perspective that synthesizes contradictions?

Commitment within relativistic thinking

What do proponents argue about the emerging adulthood stage?

It applies to most industrialized nations

What serves as a safety net for launching adult life for many emerging adults?

Parental home

What do people now choose as their preferred way of entering into a committed intimate relationship?

Cohabitation

Who are some of the philosophers mentioned in the text who focused on the development of a sense of conscience and virtue?

Immanuel Kant

Which theorist is associated with exploring morality through a moral psychology lens in modern-day empirical research?

Sigmund Freud

Which aspect of moral development do altruism theories emphasize?

Feeling or emotion aspect

Who is known for exploring morality's relation to cognitive development in modern-day empirical research?

Jean Piaget

What are the components that make up people's concept of intentionality according to Malle, Moses, and Baldwin (2001)?

Desire for an outcome, belief that the action will lead to the outcome, intention to perform the action, skill to perform the action, and awareness while performing it

What has recent research on children's theory of mind (ToM) focused on?

Understanding others' intentions

What did Yuill (1984) present evidence for regarding comprehension of one's intentions in moral judgment?

Comprehension of one's intentions plays a role in moral judgment

According to Killen, Mulvey, Richardson, Jampol, and Woodward (2011), what are children capable of using when making moral judgments about the accep?

Information about one's intentions

What is a hallmark of moral understanding according to the text?

Intentionality

What are some of the topics to which researchers have expanded the field of moral development in the past 20 years?

Prejudice, aggression, theory of mind, emotions, empathy, peer relationships, and parent-child interactions

What did Turiel's social domain theory show about children's development of moral standards?

Children were actually younger in developing moral standards than past psychologists predicted

What did the Handbook of Moral Development (2006) provide?

A wide range of information about topics covered in moral development today

According to Jean Piaget's theory, which stages are included in moral development?

Premoral period, heteronomous morality, autonomous morality

Which theory emphasizes the individual's construction and interpretation of morality from a socio-cognitive perspective?

Jean Piaget's theory

What did Lawrence Kohlberg's theory categorize into pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional morality?

Stages of moral development

Which theory proposed the tension between individual needs and societal demands as the basis for moral development?

Sigmund Freud's theory

What does the judgment-action gap refer to?

The disparity between moral reasoning and behavior in real-life moral dilemmas

Which theory of moral development includes six stages progressing from childhood through adulthood?

Lawrence Kohlberg's theory

What did Elliot Turiel advocate for in the context of social cognition?

Social domain approach

What does the term 'judgment-action gap' refer to?

The disparity between moral reasoning and behavior in real-life moral dilemmas

According to Turiel's social domain theory, what does it delineate throughout development?

Differentiation of moral, societal, and psychological concepts

What did Sigmund Freud propose as the basis for moral development?

Tension between individual needs and societal demands

What is the basis of Piaget's theory of moral development?

The individual's construction and interpretation of morality from a socio-cognitive perspective

According to Piaget's theory, what is the term for the stage where children represent things with words and images but lack logical reasoning?

Pre-operational stage

What was the main observation that led Piaget to develop his theory of cognitive development?

Children of different ages made different mistakes

According to Piaget, what is the term for the stage where children experience the world through actions and develop object permanence?

Sensorimotor stage

What did Piaget propose as the reason for children of different ages making different mistakes?

Quality of intelligence

What is the motivational element that guides cognitive development according to the text?

Equilibration

What is the term for the state when a child is confronted with information that does not fit into their previously held schemes?

Disequilibrium

What is the term for modifying a different scheme to accommodate newly encountered information?

Accommodation

What is the term for ignoring newly discovered information to return to a state of equilibrium?

Assimilation

What do Silverman and Geiringer propose for changing a child's mode of thought?

Expose the child to concepts reflecting a higher stage of development

What is the example used to illustrate the concept of disequilibrium in the text?

Dave mistaking an elephant for a horse

What is the term for the process of slightly altering existing knowledge to accommodate new information?

Accommodation

What is the term for the process of fitting new information into existing schemes?

Assimilation

According to Piaget's theory, what is responsible for dynamic aspects of intelligence?

Operative intelligence

In Piaget's theory, what is the process of integrating new information into existing cognitive schemas called?

Assimilation

According to Piaget, which factor did he add as the fourth to development, along with maturation, experience, and the social environment?

Equilibration

What is the term for the organism's attempt to keep cognitive schemes in balance, according to Piaget?

Equilibration

In Piaget's theory, what is responsible for representing static aspects of intelligence?

Figurative intelligence

According to Piaget, what is the process of altering existing schemas to fit new information called?

Accommodation

In Piaget's theory, what is responsible for reality involving transformations and states?

Intelligence

According to Piaget, what is the central focus of human development?

Cognitive development

In Piaget's theory, what is the term for the process of integrating new information into existing cognitive schemas?

Assimilation

According to Piaget, what are the two processes that cannot exist without the other?

Assimilation and accommodation

In Piaget's theory, what is responsible for representing dynamic aspects of intelligence?

Operative intelligence

According to Piaget, what is the term for altering existing schemas to fit new information?

Accommodation

Who are some of the philosophers mentioned in the text who contributed to early moral development theories?

Confucius and Rousseau

Which theorists are associated with exploring morality through a moral psychology lens in the modern-day?

Sigmund Freud and Carol Gilligan

What is the focus of moral development theories that emphasize the affective aspect of morality?

Altruism and emotional development

What does morality in itself often serve as a synonym for, according to the text?

Goodness

What are the five components that make up people's concept of intentionality?

Desire, belief, intention, skill, awareness

What did Turiel's social domain theory demonstrate about children's moral standards?

Children develop moral standards at a younger age than predicted

What did the Handbook of Moral Development (2006) aim to provide?

A sense of the current state of the field of moral development

What has recent research on children's theory of mind (ToM) focused on?

Understanding others' intentions

According to Malle, Moses, and Baldwin (2001), what is intentionality defined as?

An attribution of the target's intentions towards another

What is a hallmark of moral understanding according to the text?

Intentionality

What did researchers Killen, Mulvey, Richardson, Jampol, and Woodward (2011) present evidence of?

With developing false belief competence (ToM), children are capable of using information about one's intentions when making moral judgments

What did recent research on moral development expand the field to include?

Topics such as prejudice, aggression, theory of mind, emotions, empathy, peer relationships, and parent-child interactions

Which theorist's theory emphasizes the tension between individual needs and societal demands?

Sigmund Freud

According to B.F. Skinner's behaviorism theory, what shapes moral development?

Punishments and rewards

Which stage of moral reasoning is part of Lawrence Kohlberg's theory?

Post-conventional

Which concept does Elliot Turiel's social domain theory differentiate in social cognition?

Moral, societal, and psychological concepts

According to Freud's theory, what does the id represent?

Selfish desires

What does Skinner's theory propose as the basis for all morals?

Learned behaviors shaped by punishments and rewards

In Piaget's theory, what are the stages of childhood moral development?

Premoral, heteronomous, and autonomous morality

What does Kohlberg's theory categorize moral reasoning into?

Pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional stages

What does Turiel's social domain theory distinguish in social cognition?

Moral concepts, societal conventions, and personal prerogatives

According to Piaget, what does the term 'heteronomous morality' refer to?

The stage where children believe rules are unchangeable

What does Kohlberg's theory address with the term 'judgment-action gap'?

The disparity between moral reasoning and actual moral behavior

What does Piaget's theory focus on regarding morality?

The individual's construction and interpretation of morality

Study Notes

Development of Self-Esteem, Achievement Attributions, and Emotional Development in Middle Childhood

  • Children in middle childhood develop the ability for recursive thought, allowing them to read others' messages more accurately and internalize their expectations, leading to the formation of an ideal self for self-evaluation.
  • Self-esteem in middle childhood is influenced by the discrepancy between the real self (who they actually are) and the ideal self (who they want to be), with a large gap leading to low self-esteem.
  • By age 6, children in middle childhood have formed four broad self-evaluations: academic performance, social competence, athletic competence, and physical appearance.
  • Influences on self-esteem in middle childhood include culture, gender, social structures, and child-rearing practices, with authoritative child-rearing styles leading to higher self-esteem and controlling or indulgent parenting impacting self-esteem differently.
  • Achievement attributions in middle childhood include mastery-oriented attributions, learned helplessness, and fixed views of ability, which influence how children interpret success and failure.
  • Influences on achievement attributions in middle childhood include adult communication, types of praise (person praise vs. process praise), and cognitive development, with attribution retraining being an intervention to encourage learned helplessness children to believe they can overcome failure through effort.
  • Emotional development in middle childhood involves self-conscious emotions such as pride and guilt, which become governed by personal responsibility as children integrate social expectations into their self-concepts.
  • Children in middle childhood experience guilt and pride even when no adult is present, unlike preschoolers who typically experience these emotions only in the presence of adults.
  • Middle childhood children connect success or failure to specific aspects of the self, reflecting their growing emotional and self-concept development.
  • The development of self-esteem, achievement attributions, and emotional development in middle childhood is influenced by various factors, including cognitive development, social interactions, and parental influences.
  • This developmental stage is crucial for the formation of self-concept, self-esteem, and emotional regulation, laying the foundation for future social and emotional well-being.
  • Understanding the factors and processes involved in self-esteem, achievement attributions, and emotional development in middle childhood is essential for promoting positive self-concept and emotional well-being in children.

Adolescent Development and Relationships

  • Erikson's theory suggests that adolescents need autonomy and initiative for decision-making and vocation selection
  • Adolescents develop a sense of self through exploration and commitment
  • Adolescents' self-concept evolves with a wider array of traits, influenced by social context
  • Self-esteem generally rises in mid to late adolescence, affecting adjustment and sociability
  • Paths to identity include identity achievement, moratorium, foreclosure, and diffusion
  • Cultural-majority and cultural-minority adolescents have different views on self
  • Puberty triggers psychological distancing from parents, leading to a balance between connection and separation
  • Effective parenting of adolescents balances autonomy and monitoring, influenced by various factors
  • Adolescent friendships are characterized by intimacy, mutual understanding, and loyalty
  • Peer groups become increasingly tightly knit, forming cliques and crowds
  • Dating in adolescence evolves from casual relationships at 12 to more intimate and steady relationships at 16
  • Relationship with parents and friends contributes to positive romantic relationships, with secure attachment predicting friendship and romantic ties

Adolescent Development and Identity Formation

  • Long-term identity foreclosure and diffusion are related to adjustment difficulties in adolescents
  • Factors promoting healthy identity development include cognitive style, parental attachment, freedom to explore, interaction with diverse peers, and supportive schools and communities
  • Supportive parents, peers, and schools can foster a strong, secure ethnic identity among minority adolescents
  • Bicultural identity offers emotional and social benefits
  • Kohlberg's theory of moral development includes three levels with two stages each, and moral reasoning is influenced by situational factors
  • Moral maturity can be found at Stages 3 and 4, with few people reaching the postconventional level
  • Adolescents display more subtle reasoning about conflicts between personal choice and community obligations
  • Influences on moral reasoning and behavior include warm, rational parenting, extended schooling, and peer discussions
  • Critics challenge Kohlberg's theory, arguing that moral judgments vary based on context and motivations
  • Gender intensification may occur in adolescence, influenced by pubertal changes, parental beliefs, and concern with others' opinions
  • Adolescents strive for autonomy and question parental authority, with warm, supportive parenting predicting favorable adjustment
  • Adolescent friendships are based on intimacy, mutual understanding, and loyalty, and influence self-concept, identity, and stress management. Peers are organized into cliques and crowds, influenced by adolescent self-concepts and ethnicity.

Theories of Moral Development

  • Theories of moral development encompass affective, behavioral, and cognitive aspects of morality.
  • Sigmund Freud proposed tension between individual needs and societal demands as the basis for moral development.
  • B.F. Skinner's behaviorism focused on external forces, such as reinforcement contingencies, shaping moral development.
  • Jean Piaget's theory emphasized the individual's construction and interpretation of morality from a socio-cognitive perspective.
  • Piaget's stages of moral development include the premoral period, heteronomous morality, and autonomous morality.
  • Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development includes six stages progressing from childhood through adulthood.
  • Kohlberg's theory categorizes stages into pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional morality.
  • The judgment-action gap refers to the disparity between moral reasoning and behavior in real-life moral dilemmas.
  • Elliot Turiel advocated for a social domain approach to social cognition, differentiating moral, societal, and psychological concepts.
  • Turiel's social domain theory delineates how individuals differentiate moral, societal, and psychological concepts throughout development.
  • Theories of moral development integrate affective, behavioral, and cognitive aspects of morality.
  • The foundational theories of moral development include Freud's tension between individual and societal needs, Skinner's behaviorism, Piaget's socio-cognitive perspective, Kohlberg's stages of moral reasoning, and Turiel's social domain theory.

Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

  • Piaget's theory focused on how children construct an understanding of the world through discrepancies between existing knowledge and new discoveries
  • Cognitive development was central to human development, and language was dependent on cognitive understanding
  • Child-centred classrooms and "open education" directly applied Piaget's views
  • Piaget's theory has limitations such as supporting sharp stages rather than continuous development
  • Piaget argued that reality involves transformations and states, and intelligence must represent both aspects
  • Operative intelligence is responsible for dynamic aspects, while figurative intelligence represents static aspects
  • Assimilation is the process of integrating new information into existing cognitive schemas, while accommodation alters existing schemas to fit new information
  • Assimilation and accommodation are two processes that cannot exist without the other
  • Equilibration is the organism's attempt to keep cognitive schemes in balance, according to Piaget
  • Piaget added equilibration as a fourth factor to development, along with maturation, experience, and the social environment
  • Piaget's theory differed from others in its emphasis on equilibration as a factor in development
  • Piaget believed that cognitive development involves understanding and change through assimilation and accommodation

Theories of Moral Development

  • There are four main aspects of moral theories: affective, behavioral, cognitive, and integrated perspectives.
  • Sigmund Freud's theory focuses on the tension between individual needs and societal demands, and the role of socializing agents in moral development.
  • B.F. Skinner's behaviorism theory emphasizes the influence of external forces, such as reinforcement contingencies, in shaping moral development.
  • Jean Piaget's theory centers on the individual's construction and interpretation of morality from a socio-cognitive and socio-emotional perspective, identifying stages of moral development in children.
  • Lawrence Kohlberg's influential theory of moral development is based on 6 interconnected stages of moral reasoning, falling into pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional categories.
  • Kohlberg's theory also addresses the judgment-action gap, which refers to the disparity between an individual's moral reasoning and their actual moral behavior due to hypothetical versus real-life constraints.
  • Elliot Turiel proposed the social domain theory, which differentiates moral, societal, and psychological concepts in social cognition from early development throughout the lifespan.
  • Freud's theory involves the tension between the id (selfish desires) and the super-ego (internal cultural norms).
  • Skinner's theory is based on the idea that all morals are learned behaviors shaped by punishments and rewards.
  • Piaget's theory identifies three stages of childhood moral development: premoral, heteronomous, and autonomous morality.
  • Kohlberg's theory categorizes moral reasoning into pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional stages, showing a progression from childhood to adulthood.
  • Turiel's social domain theory distinguishes moral concepts, societal conventions, and personal prerogatives in social cognition.

Test your knowledge of the development of self-esteem, achievement attributions, and emotional development in middle childhood with this quiz. Explore the factors and influences that shape children's self-concept and emotional well-being during this crucial developmental stage.

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