Microorganisms and Bioremediation Quiz

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18 Questions

Why do antibiotics specifically target prokaryotic organisms?

Eukaryotic cells have a different cell wall composition compared to prokaryotic cells.

What is the primary factor required for successful bioremediation?

Genetically engineered microorganisms

What microorganism causes backpackers diarrhea?

Protozoan

How long did it typically take to die from the bubonic plague?

Between 2-4 days

Who is credited with the discovery of oxygen?

Joseph Priestley

What did Louis Pasteur use to prove biogenesis?

Swan neck flasks

What did Dr. Ignaz Semmelweis use to reduce mortality rate in his ward?

Chlorinated lime solution

Which scientist saved wine through the discovery of fermentation?

Louis Pasteur

What type of microorganism is a virus?

Acellular

Why do antibiotics only work for prokaryotic organisms?

Prokaryotes have different lipid bonds in their membranes

What is the primary feature of endospores that allows them to resist heat and drying out?

Unique lipid linkages in the cell membrane

What is required to visualize a virus?

Transmission electron microscope

What is the core of a virus surrounded by?

Protein coat

What type of microorganism causes backpackers' diarrhea?

Protozoan

Why can viruses be considered as parasites?

Because they only replicate in a host cell

What is the significance of Louis Jablot covering a bowl and leaving one uncovered?

Proved that dust was essential for biogenesis

What did Schroder & Van Dusch pass air through before putting it in a flask?

Cotton plug

What did Dr. Ignaz Semmelweis use to reduce mortality rate in his ward?

Chlorinated lime solution

Study Notes

Antibiotics and Microorganisms

  • Antibiotics specifically target prokaryotic organisms because they inhibit cell wall formation, which is unique to prokaryotes.
  • Only prokaryotic organisms (bacteria) are affected by antibiotics, as eukaryotic cells (like human cells) do not have a cell wall.

Bioremediation

  • The primary factor required for successful bioremediation is microorganisms that can degrade pollutants.

Microorganisms and Disease

  • Giardia lamblia causes backpackers' diarrhea.
  • The bubonic plague was typically fatal within 4-7 days if left untreated.

Scientists and Discoveries

  • Joseph Priestley is credited with the discovery of oxygen.
  • Louis Pasteur used swan-necked flasks to prove biogenesis, demonstrating that microorganisms cannot spontaneously generate.
  • Dr. Ignaz Semmelweis used handwashing with soap and water to reduce mortality rates in his ward.
  • Louis Pasteur discovered the process of fermentation, which saved the French wine industry.
  • Viruses are a type of microorganism that must infect a host cell to replicate.

Viruses

  • Viruses can be considered parasites because they require a host cell to replicate.
  • The primary feature of endospores that allows them to resist heat and drying out is their low water content and thick, protective coatings.
  • To visualize a virus, an electron microscope is required.
  • The core of a virus is surrounded by a protein coat called a capsid.

Historical Experiments

  • Louis Jablot's experiment covering a bowl and leaving one uncovered demonstrated that microorganisms are present in the air and can contaminate food.
  • Schroder and Van Dusch passed air through a red-hot tube before putting it in a flask, killing any microorganisms present, to demonstrate the role of microorganisms in fermentation.

Test your knowledge on types of microorganisms, bioremediation, antibiotics, and more. Learn about acellular, prokaryotic, and eukaryotic microorganisms and their characteristics.

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