Memory and Its Three Stages: Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval

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18 Questions

What did the temporal integration experiment reveal about recalling a missing dot?

Recalling the missing dot was more accurate when the frames were shown closer in time.

What is the capacity of working memory according to the Baddeley Model?

It can store about 7 ± 2 items, and chunking allows for storage of more than 9 items.

Which component of working memory is responsible for storing verbal content?

The phonological loop

What is the function of the central executive in working memory according to the Baddeley Model?

It regulates cognitive processes, coordinates storage centers, and controls attention and inhibition.

What type of memory stores events from our own personal past?

Episodic memory

What is the term for people's tendency to recall items from the end and beginning of a list better than those in the middle?

Serial position effect

Which type of memory involves unconsciously remembering information through automatic processing?

Implicit memory

What is the term for temporarily holding information for immediate use?

Working memory

What type of processing is involved in consciously recollecting previous facts at a particular time and place?

Effortful processing

What system in working memory regulates cognitive processes and intervenes when they go astray?

The central executive

What is the function of sensory memory?

Recording information from senses before moving to long term memory

What is the main characteristic of iconic memory?

Having a large capacity and rapid fading

Which memory store is information that an individual is conscious of and subject to decay?

Short term memory

What are the three stages of memory?

Encoding, storage, retrieval

What does the whole reporting condition involve in Sperling's study?

Recalling the letters shown to determine the span of apprehension

Which sensory modality is related to the olfactory system?

Gustatory

What is the main characteristic of short term memory?

Information conscious and subject to decay

What type of memory is involved in recording information from senses before it moves to long term store?

Sensory store

Study Notes

Working Memory

  • The capacity of working memory is limited, according to the Baddeley Model.
  • The phonological loop is the component of working memory responsible for storing verbal content.
  • The central executive is responsible for regulating cognitive processes and intervening when they go astray, according to the Baddeley Model.

Types of Memory

  • Episodic memory stores events from our own personal past.
  • Primacy and recency effects refer to people's tendency to recall items from the end and beginning of a list better than those in the middle.
  • Implicit memory involves unconsciously remembering information through automatic processing.
  • Short-term memory temporarily holds information for immediate use.

Processing and Memory

  • Explicit processing is involved in consciously recollecting previous facts at a particular time and place.
  • The central executive system regulates cognitive processes and intervenes when they go astray.

Sensory Memory

  • The function of sensory memory is to record information from the senses before it moves to long-term storage.
  • The main characteristic of iconic memory is that it has a very short duration, typically less than a second.
  • Information in short-term memory is conscious and subject to decay.

Memory Stages

  • The three stages of memory are sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.

Sperling's Study

  • The whole reporting condition in Sperling's study involves presenting participants with a brief visual array and asking them to recall all the items in the array.

Sensory Modalities

  • The olfactory system is related to the sensory modality of smell.

Characteristics of Memory

  • The main characteristic of short-term memory is that it has limited capacity and information is easily lost.
  • The main characteristic of sensory memory is that it is a brief and initial storage of information from the senses.

Test your knowledge on the three stages of memory - encoding, storage, and retrieval, as well as the different systems involved in retaining information over time. This quiz covers the types of information stored, duration, and capacity of memory.

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