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Semester 2 Exam Review

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Pet stores sell meal worms as food so it is important that they are fed well so the supply does not dwindle. If a pet store wanted to identify the preferred type of food for mealworms what might their investigation look like?

They would need to formulate a hypothesis for a type of food they think is preferred. 2. They would need to identify the variables (Independent: Types of food, Dependent: how much food is eaten/preferred) 3. Collect the data in a controlled environment 4. Communicate the results and revise the hypothesis if needed

Differentiate between replication and repetition

Replication is when another scientist repeats the same experiment that another first did. Repeition is when there are multiple trials of the same experiment done by the same scientist.

Why is evolution a theory and not a law?

It provides an evidence-based explanation for why and how evolution takes place

(See #10) How does the fossil record show evidence of evolution in the horse as shown in the diagram?

There is a fossil record of most of the horse ancestors. Most of what we know about ancient organisms comes from the fossil record. The fossil record provides evidence about the history of life and past environments on Earth. The fossil record also shows how different groups of organisms have changed over time. Each new discovery helps to fill holes in our understanding of evolution.

How did Charles Darwin learn that genetic variation of traits allow organisms to survive in their environment?

Darwin observed that some variations make individuals better adapted to their environment. Those individuals were more likely to survive and reproduce, and their offspring would inherit the helpful characteristic. The offspring, in turn, would be more likely to survive and reproduce and pass the characteristic to their offspring. After many generations, more members of the population would have the helpful characteristic resulting in natural selection

Genes, chromosomes, and DNA are important structures for processes related to heredity and reproduction. How are these three structures related?

Genes are sections of DNA that make up a chromosome.

What is the difference between genotype and phenotype?

Genotype is the genetic makeup (letters) and phenotype is the appearance (what it looks like)

(See #16) In a certain type of plant the allele for purple flowers (P) is dominant, while the allele for pink flowers (p) is recessive. Plant 1 and Plant 2 and both heterozygous for the color of their flowers. What are the colors of the flowers on the parent plants and what is the probability that the plants will produce pink offspring?

The parents have purple flowers. The probability that their offspring will have pink flowers is 25%.

The genes associated with flower color correspond to F= Red and f= white. If a parent has an offspring that is white, what must their genotype be?

The offspring’s genotype must be ff.

What is the difference between asexual and sexual reproduction in organisms?

Asexual Reproduction: A reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent is called asexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction: In sexual reproduction, two parents combine their genetic material to produce a new organism which differs from both parents. Sexual reproduction involves an egg cell and a sperm cell joining to form a new cell in a process called fertilization.

Describe the main difference between the processes of meiosis and mitosis. (Which type of reproduction do they relate to)

Mitosis is a process of asexual reproduction and meiosis is a process of sexual reproduction.

What are some advantages of sexual reproduction?

Sexual reproduction allows for more genetic variation. This could continue to help organisms evolve over time (natural selection) for traits that are more valued.

A tiger shark rises to the surface of the ocean and grabs a sea snake swimming on the surface. How would you describe this symbiotic relationship?

An interaction in which one organism kills another for food or nutrients is called predation. In this interaction, one organism is the predator (tiger shark) and the other is the prey (sea snake).

Identify and describe the roles of each organism in the food web shown. (see #25)

Sun: Producer Plant: Producer that provides energy to the other consumers Grasshopper: Primary consumer that gains energy from the plant and provides energy to other high level consumers Mouse: Secondary Consumer that gains energy from the plant and the grass hopper and provides energy to the snake and hawk Snake: Tertiary Consumer that gains energy from the mouse and provides energy to the hawk Hawk: Quaternary Consumer that gains energy from both the snake and the mouse

Which organisms are competing? (see #26)

The snake and the owl because they both eat frogs.

If a crab were added to this food web (for #26), and it ate the scraps left behind by the frog, what would best describe the relationship between the crab and the frog?

Commensalism because the crab would benefit from the frogs scraps and the frog will not be affected by the crab in a positive or negative way.

(See #15) In a species of mice, fur color can either be brown (B) or white (b). The allele for brown fur is dominant, and the allele for white fur is recessive. The pedigree shows the inheritance of fur color through three generations of mice. What is the genotype and phenotype of individual 1?

She has a white fur phenotype and a genotype of bb.

(See #8) Identify the benefits and limitations of the food web model

Benefits: Shows the energy transfer between organisms, shows relationships in a large ecosystem

Limitations: Does not account for outsie factors, not to scale (Size and quantity of consumption)

(See #2) Based on the data in the diagram below, what would an appropriate conclusion be?

The rabbit and wolf populations are inversely related. As the rabbit population decreases the wolf population increases. This may also indicate that the rabbits are a food source for the wolves.

(See #4) Gregor thinks that anthills are wider when the ground is muddy. Is his investigation a scientific experiment?

His investigation is not a scientific experiment because he does not test and control variables.

(See #5) Students hypothesize that temperature is a limiting factor for the germination of seeds. They carry out an experiment to test their hypothesis. They label two plastic bags A and B and place a damp paper towel and one bean seed in each bag. They place one bag in a lighted refrigerator and the other bag on the windowsill. Whenever the paper towels look dry, they add more water. Each day they check to see if the seeds have germinated and record their observations in a data table.

Which of the following is the dependent variable in this experiment?


A biologist studies living or once-living organisms. When a biologist thinks he has discovered a new plant, he classifies it. What method is he most likely to use to in his pursuit of scientific explanation?

He compares traits to other plants he knows.

How is scientific knowledge gained and accepted by the scientific community?

Scientists contribute to scientific knowledge by conducting investigations and drawing conclusions.

Tasmanian tigers were large mammals that lived in Australia, but as more people hunted the tiger it became rare. The last captive Tasmanian tiger died in the 1960s and no wild Tasmanian tigers have been seen for decades. If there are any remaining Tasmanian tigers, their population is very small. Most biologists assume the Tasmanian tiger is extinct. How could a scientist justify the decision to declare the Tasmanian tiger extinct?

When populations are very small, it is hard for a population to retain the genetic diversity required to adapt to a changing environment thus they become extinct.

How would you describe the process of sexual reproduction? How does the DNA of offspring compare to that of the parents?

In sexual reproduction, two parents combine their genetic material to produce a new organism which differs from both parents

What are the advantages and disadvantages of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)?

GMOs are made by changing the original DNA so desired traits are expressed. Growing our food from seeds that have been genetically modified is highly controversial. Many people fear the impact it could have on human health and the environment in the future. Yet farmers are able to yield more product with GMO crops that are not eaten by pests or overcome by weeds. Scientists must balance sustaining a growing human population with safeguarding the environment.

How are clones produced? What is the genetic similarity between the organism that was produced from that of the original organism?

A clone is an exact genetic copy of the parent.

(See #29) Goby fish live in close proximity to many other water animals. They often lay their eggs in burrows built by blind pistol shrimp. The blind pistol shrimp have feelers that sense when the goby fish flee nearby predators. Some goby fish eat the parasites of other, larger predator fish. Based on the information provided, what would be considered a limiting factor in the goby fish’s ecosystem?

An environmental factor that causes a population to stop growing or to decrease in size, such as a fatal disease infecting organisms, organisms, is a limiting factor. In this example the number of pistol shrimp because goby fish often lay their eggs in shrimp burrows. Other limiting factors in ecosystems include: Food, water, climate and weather, space and shelter.

(See #31) What is the role of process 'C' in the Carbon Cycle Diagram below?

The horse releases carbon dioxide as a byproduct of cellular respiration.

Study Notes

Mealworm Investigation

  • To identify the preferred type of food for mealworms, a pet store might investigate by feeding different foods to separate groups of mealworms and measuring their growth, survival, and reproduction rates.
  • The store would need to ensure replication (multiple trials with the same conditions) to minimize errors and increase the reliability of the results.

Evolution and Fossils

  • Evolution is a theory because it is a well-substantiated explanation for a set of phenomena, but it is not a law, which is a descriptive statement that summarizes a pattern or regularity.
  • The fossil record shows evidence of evolution in the horse through the gradual changes in the horse's characteristics over time, as depicted in the diagram.

Heredity and Reproduction

  • Genes, chromosomes, and DNA are related structures that play crucial roles in heredity and reproduction:
    • Genes are segments of DNA that carry information for traits.
    • Chromosomes are thread-like structures that carry genes.
    • DNA is the molecule that contains the genetic information.
  • Genotype refers to the genetic makeup of an organism, while phenotype refers to the physical and behavioral characteristics of an organism.

Plant Genetics

  • In the given plant, the allele for purple flowers (P) is dominant, and the allele for pink flowers (p) is recessive.
  • Plant 1 and Plant 2, being heterozygous, have a 50% chance of producing pink offspring.
  • The parent plants' flower colors are purple, and the probability of producing pink offspring is 25%.

Flower Color Genetics

  • If a parent has an offspring with white flowers, the parent's genotype must be ff.


  • Asexual reproduction involves the production of offspring with identical genetic material, while sexual reproduction involves the combination of genetic material from two parents.
  • Meiosis relates to sexual reproduction, where genetic material is shuffled and combined, resulting in genetically diverse offspring.
  • Mitosis relates to asexual reproduction, where genetic material is duplicated without shuffling or combination.

Advantages of Sexual Reproduction

  • Sexual reproduction provides genetic variation, allowing organisms to adapt to changing environments and increasing their chances of survival.

Symbiotic Relationships

  • The tiger shark and sea snake exhibit a symbiotic relationship, where the shark benefits from catching prey and the sea snake benefits from being protected by the shark's presence.

Food Web

  • The food web model shows the feeding relationships between organisms in an ecosystem.
  • The diagram shows the tiger shark, sea snake, frog, and other organisms, with the tiger shark at the top and the sea snake at the bottom.


  • In the given food web, the frog and the organism that the frog eats are competing for resources.

Crab and Frog Relationship

  • If a crab were added to the food web and ate the scraps left behind by the frog, the relationship between the crab and the frog would be commensalism, where the crab benefits and the frog is unaffected.

Mouse Genetics

  • In the given species of mice, the allele for brown fur (B) is dominant, and the allele for white fur (b) is recessive.
  • The pedigree shows the inheritance of fur color through three generations of mice.
  • The genotype and phenotype of individual 1 can be determined by analyzing the pedigree.

Food Web Model

  • The benefits of the food web model include showing the relationships between organisms and their roles in the ecosystem.
  • The limitations of the food web model include oversimplifying the complexity of ecosystems and not accounting for environmental factors.

Scientific Experiment

  • Gregor's investigation is not a scientific experiment because it lacks a controlled variable, randomization, and replication.

Seed Germination

  • The students' experiment is designed to test the hypothesis that temperature is a limiting factor for seed germination.
  • The dependent variable in this experiment is the germination of the seeds.

Biological Classification

  • A biologist studying a new plant would likely use the scientific method to classify it, involving observation, hypothesis, experimentation, and conclusion.

Scientific Knowledge

  • Scientific knowledge is gained through the scientific method, and it is accepted by the scientific community through peer review and replication.

Tasmanian Tiger

  • A scientist could justify declaring the Tasmanian tiger extinct due to the lack of sightings and the death of the last captive individual in the 1960s.

Sexual Reproduction

  • Sexual reproduction involves the combination of genetic material from two parents, resulting in genetically diverse offspring.
  • The DNA of offspring is unique compared to their parents, with a mix of genetic material from both parents.

Genetic Modification

  • Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have advantages, such as increased crop yields and pest resistance, but also disadvantages, such as potential environmental risks and unintended consequences.


  • Cloning involves the production of an exact genetic replica of an organism.
  • The genetic similarity between the cloned organism and the original organism is 100%.

Design an experiment to identify the preferred food type for mealworms. Pet stores rely on a steady supply of mealworms, so it's crucial to understand their dietary needs. Explore the scientific method and learn about mealworm nutrition.

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