Master the Art of Decision-Making

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By ProgressiveIvory

Quiz

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187 Questions

What is the relationship between the quality of good decisions and bad decisions?

How do participants rate the importance of their bad decisions compared to their good decisions?

Why are good decisions coded as good and bad decisions coded as bad?

What is the main difference between decision and judgement research?

What did Herbert Simon propose as a consideration for assessing the rationality of human behavior?

What did Bernoulli exchange the notion of expected value with?

What is one of the axioms of expected utility theory?

What is one of the factors that affects the quality of a decision?

Based on the text, how are good decisions coded as good?

What does the positive retrospect bias suggest?

What is the main tool of social judgment theorists?

What did Savage prove about a person's choices?

What is one of the psychological caveats incorporated in expected utility theory?

What impact did evidence of human behavior contradicting expected utility theory have on judgment and decision-making research?

What does the left-hand side of the diagram in the lens model represent?

What is the principal technique used in learning novel cue-outcome relations?

What is the role of the expert in a mechanical combination?

What is the adaptive toolbox proposed by Gigerenzer (1999)?

What are the two principles of the Take the best (TTB) strategy?

What does the empirical data suggest about the use of fast-and-frugal heuristics?

Which strategy considers each alternative one at a time and makes a summary evaluation of it before considering the next one?

According to McClelland and Lange, what makes decision-making difficult for consumers?

What is the main difference between compensatory and non-compensatory strategies in decision-making?

Why can a simple statistical model outperform human predictions?

What is the key process in decision-making?

What did the experiment by Klayman show about participants' ability to predict outcomes?

Why did participants under-purchase good reports in the study on setting production quotas?

According to Payne, Bettman & Johnson (1993), what is the trade-off involved in deciding how to decide?

According to the MC framework, what is the relationship between monitoring and control?

What is one finding related to experiences of uncertainty and control behaviors?

According to Osman, what is the impact of extended practice on performance?

Which of the following is NOT one of the components proposed by Brehmer (1979) for ascertaining the best way to use information provided by cues?

In a typical MCPL task, when does outcome feedback typically lead to improvements in performance?

Why can learning be impeded by outcome feedback if the functions relating the cues to the criterion are negative or non-linear?

According to Brehmer, why is learning from outcome feedback difficult in probabilistic tasks?

According to Todd & Hammond, why is learning from outcome feedback difficult in most MCPL tasks?

What is the difference between feedback and feedforward in the context of learning from experience?

What did Newell's study on cognitive feedback and outcome feedback in binary-cue MCPL tasks suggest?

According to Brehmer and Allard, what are the three important characteristics of dynamic decision tasks?

What did Brehmer conclude about participants' behavior in dynamic decision tasks?

According to Osman, what does monitoring involve in the Monitoring and Control (MC) framework?

What is the central notion in the Monitoring and Control (MC) framework proposed by Osman?

Which principle of probability theory is violated when rating the combined occurrence of a heart attack and being 55 years old as more probable than their separate occurrences?

Which approach to the analysis and appraisal of probability judgments focuses on the fit between judgments and the external environment?

What do Ramsey and de Finetti show about the laws of probability in relation to judgments or beliefs?

What is a potential risk of using a naïve approach to Bayesian updating?

What is one of the advantages of using Bayesian Networks for probabilistic reasoning with multiple interrelated variables?

In what situations are Bayesian Networks particularly useful?

According to frequentist theories, what do probability judgments concern?

What does Bayes' rule provide a normative rule for?

What does the Likelihood Ratio compare in Bayesian updating in legal reasoning?

What does Bayes' rule tell us how much to adjust in Bayesian updating?

Which of the following best describes attribute substitution?

What is base-rate neglect?

What is the conjunction fallacy?

What is the availability heuristic based on?

What is the term used to describe the pattern where the judged support for a disjunction is assumed to be greater than the judged support for one of its exclusive subcomponents?

What is the main focus of correspondence-based methods for evaluating probability judgments?

What is the purpose of calibration in probability judgment assessment?

According to support theory, subjective probabilities are derived from judgments of what?

What is one of the central claims of support theory?

What is the disjunction fallacy?

Why do people make conjunction errors according to the text?

What is the main difference between the inside view and the outside view?

What evidence supports the nested-set hypothesis?

How can the two positions of frequentists and nested-sets be reconciled?

How do people make category inferences?

What is the frequency effect described in the text?

According to Gigerenzer and colleagues, what are natural frequencies?

What is the nested-sets hypothesis proposed by Tversky and Kahneman?

Which of the following is NOT one of the core ingredients for any decision problem?

What is the second step in analyzing decisions?

What is the rule that takes one from the specifications to the correct decision?

According to expected utility theory, which of the following is one of the basic axioms that agents must obey?

Which principle of decision-making is violated in the Allais paradox?

What is Savage's plausible explanation for why people prefer option A over option B in the Allais paradox?

In Ellsberg's problem, what is a challenge to the sure-thing principle?

According to prospect theory, how do people evaluate outcomes?

What is one of the key characteristics of the value function in prospect theory?

How do people perceive outcomes in terms of gains and losses?

What happens to preference reversals when people have the opportunity to make repeated decisions?

What do preference reversals tell us about decision theory?

What are preferences often influenced by?

Which phenomenon describes the reluctance to give up something, even if offered a higher price than its original value?

Which bias explains the preference for staying in the same state rather than taking a risk and moving to another state?

Which pattern describes risk-seeking behavior for small probabilities and risk-aversion for medium and large probabilities?

Which effect refers to the preference for a certain win over a probable win with greater expected monetary value?

Which theory does decision-by-sampling (DbS) strive to address?

What does decision-by-sampling (DbS) claim about people's subjective values of probability?

Which hypothesis suggests that different forms of elicitation draw emphasis to different features or dimensions of a problem?

What does the evaluability hypothesis propose about attribute evaluation in decision-making?

Which bias often influences recollections of attitudes and can lead to distortions whereby people tend to be biased to take credit for favorable outcomes and avoid blame for unfavorable ones?

What is the term used to describe the difficulty people have with thinking about something that's inconsistent with reality?

What is one important way to commit oneself to a task?

What are commitments commonly used for?

Which brain systems are activated with immediate outcomes?

What is the paradox of addiction?

What is attention myopia?

What happens to consumption when attention is decreased and the salient features of an object are inhibitory?

Why do people tend to make unsatisfactory decisions?

What did Galotti's study on recall of factors in decision-making reveal?

What is the peak-end rule?

What did Harley's study on bias in recall of faces find?

According to the peak-end rule, people have a strong preference for sequences that include more total pain and neglect the duration of a pleasant or unpleasant event. This preference is illustrated by the fact that people preferred the sequence 2-4-6 over the decreasing sequence: 6-4-2.

According to the concept of discounting future events, the value of an outcome or commodity should be discounted as a function of how far into the future it is delayed. Which model of discounting suggests that an individual’s rank ordering of the value of various future outcomes can change with the passage of time?

What is the psychological mechanism underlying the hyperbolic function of discounting future events?

In time-based decisions, what is the concept of discounting future events analogous to when considering monetary assets and liabilities?

According to the Weber-Fechner law, how is time perceived?

Which of the following is inconsistent with the normative exponential model of discounting?

What does the concept of fungibility refer to?

What is one of the observed properties of discount rates that is inconsistent with the normative model?

Which of the following is the definition of affective forecasting?

What is one of the explanations for the impact bias?

How can affective forecasting errors be reduced or eliminated?

According to Risk as feelings (Loewenstein), what is the relationship between emotions and cognitive evaluations in reasoning and decision-making?

What evidence supports the notion that people are more sensitive to departures from certainty and impossibility for affect-rich prizes?

How does the presentation of statistical information influence the vividness of images?

What does exemplar cueing theory propose about the imaginability of exemplars?

According to Zajonic's primacy of affect theory, affective reactions to stimuli may precede cognitive reactions and thus require no cognitive appraisal. He also argued that our choices are determined by no more than simple likes or dislikes.

According to Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis, individuals with prefrontal cortex (PFC) damage have lost the ability to mark scenarios with positive or negative feelings. As a result, they do not exhibit the appropriate anticipatory emotions when considering the future consequences of decisions.

According to the affect heuristic, affect can serve as a cue for a variety of judgments. Participants' judgments about the risks and benefits of an option could be altered by manipulating its global affective evaluation.

Finucane's study demonstrated that information about one attribute (e.g. risk) can have a carryover effect on another attribute (e.g. benefits) even if no information was directly learned about it.

According to the received wisdom, what is the general belief about group decision-making?

What type of problems are commonly used to compare individual and group performance?

According to Laughlin's findings, who generated the highest proportions of correct hypotheses in eureka-type problems?

Which group decision technique involves members providing estimates anonymously in a series of rounds, with no face-to-face discussion, until a consensus is reached?

According to the results, which group decision technique led to the greatest improvement in judgment accuracy?

In the lens model framework for group judgment, what does the far-right represent?

According to the lens model framework, what is the advantage of using this framework for analyzing judgmental accuracy?

What are the three factors examined by the Good Judgment Project team in order to get the best out of forecasts?

What is one way in which a cue can exert a direct influence on group judgments, as mentioned in the text?

What is consistent in both intellective and judgmental tasks when it comes to group performance?

What did Henry show about groups' ability to identify the best member in a group?

Which of the following is NOT a key quality of super forecasters?

What are the antecedent conditions of groupthink according to Janis' model?

What is groupthink?

Which of the following is NOT one of the steps in the five-step methodology for adopting the outside view?

What is the main advantage of considering the opposite as a decision-making technique?

What is one example of a result of considering the opposite?

According to Yates et al, why are decision-support systems more successful than other decision-aiding tools?

What is an example of choice architecture mentioned in the text?

According to Johnson and Goldstein, how does the choice architecture impact consent rates for being a donor?

Which technique can help overcome the tendency to only consider a narrow sample of evidence and improve judgment?

What is the purpose of the Multi-Attribute Utility Measure (MAU)?

Which type of decision support system component performs operations on retrieved data that are often more complicated than a decision maker alone could perform?

Why do decision-makers on the web tend to prefer non-compensatory sites?

What is the most commonly cited reason for excluding testimony from eyewitness experts, according to courts in the USA?

What does the research on eyewitness behavior show about lay knowledge of eyewitness memory?

What factors do jurors tend to underestimate and overestimate in terms of their influence on the accuracy of eyewitness memory?

What groups exhibited a greater lack of correspondence between their knowledge and that of the experts?

Which variables were groups found to be more accurate in their response concerning?

What does the solution to closing the knowledge gap about eyewitness issues in the courtroom potentially lie in?

What is the focus of the article on the psychology of confessions?

What are the three objectives of the article?

What is the error with the pre-interrogation interview Reid technique?

What are the potential problems associated with interrogation and the criminal justice system?

What are some proposals for reforming interrogation practices?

What does the study suggest about the protection of innocence within the criminal justice system?

What are the mixed results of forensic studies on the accuracy of police judgments in detecting lies?

What were the two unique aspects of the study on judgment accuracy in a forensic context?

What were the results of the study on judgment accuracy in a forensic context?

What is a reasonable goal in improving police interviewers and lie detectors?

Describe three mechanisms through which economic evaluation can assist psychiatry in mental health care.

What are the different types of costs considered in cost studies related to mental illness?

What do healthcare costs in mental health care describe?

What are the three levels of resources that contribute to maximum savings in healthcare?

What are the two forms of other value in healthcare?

What are utilities in the context of healthcare?

What is the difference between Quality-adjusted life years (QALY's) and Disability-adjusted life years (DALY)?

What is the goal of economic evaluation in healthcare service provision?

What is the impact of increasing demand for psychiatric services on psychiatrists?

What has been the reported quality of most economic evaluations of psychiatric services in the past?

What are the main reasons for poor quality economic evaluations of psychiatric services?

What are the essential elements of Shared Decision Making (SDM)?

What is the four-step model of SDM proposed by the authors?

What are some suggestions to improve the implementation of SDM?

What is the main barrier to implementing SDM in clinical practice, according to clinicians?

What is shared decision making (SDM) and how does it distinguish from other models?

What are the two lines of thinking that support the plea for SDM?

What is the goal of shared decision making (SDM) in terms of the final treatment decision?

What are the two lines of thinking that support the plea for shared decision making?

What distinguishes shared decision making (SDM) from other models?

In shared decision making (SDM), what is the final treatment decision based on?

What are the essential elements of Shared Decision Making (SDM) identified by Makoul and Claymen?

What are the steps in the four-step model of SDM proposed by the authors?

Are the four SDM steps implemented in clinical practice?

What are some suggestions to improve the implementation of SDM?

Description

Test your knowledge on decision-making with this quiz! Explore the impact of good and bad decisions, their perceived importance, and recall abilities. Discover insights from Yates et al's research and gain a deeper understanding of decision-making processes. Challenge yourself and enhance your decision-making skills!

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