Macro and Micro Nutrients L6

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Which type of fatty acids behaves more like saturated fatty acids in the body?

Which type of fatty acids is mainly found in cold-water ocean fish?

What is the main source of Omega-3 fatty acids?

Which vitamin is known for its antioxidant properties and its role in preventing oxidation of cell components?

$Vitamin C$ is mainly found in which type of fruits?

$Vitamin B1$ deficiency can lead to which condition characterized by weakness, neuropathy, and disorderly thinking?

Which vitamin helps in dentine, intercellular matrix and collagen formation?

Which macromineral is required in large amounts (more than 100 mg/day)?

Which micronutrient helps in various biochemical processes in cells and is required in very small amounts?

Which type of vitamins are stored in the body due to their fat-soluble nature?

Which nutrients are needed by the body in large amounts and provide energy and building blocks for proteins, carbohydrates, and fats?

What is the function of micronutrients?

Which nutrients are required for maintaining normal health and preventing various diseases, but do not provide energy?

What is the main source of energy obtained by the body?

What is the primary role of macronutrients in causing diseases or conditions?

Which of the following nutrients are needed by the body in small amounts, such as vitamins, minerals, and trace elements?

What do macronutrients provide for the body?

Which nutrients are required as co-enzymes/co-factors for normal physiological functions?

What is the primary function of micronutrients?

What do micronutrients provide for the body?

What is the caloric value of fats per gram?

Which macronutrient provides a protein-sparing effect?

What are the essential amino acids required for tissue maintenance measured in?

What is the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for fats in adults?

Which essential fatty acid is known for decreasing blood clotting and reducing blood pressure?

What can result from inadequate intake of proteins or energy?

What is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for total fat intake?

What are the essential macronutrients providing energy and essential fatty acids?

Which macronutrient is known for its ability to lower serum LDL levels and reduce constipation?

What is the normal adult RDA for proteins per kg of body weight?


  • ATP is used for all body functions, and the energy content of food is measured in calories (Kilocalories). One calorie is the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gm of water by 1 C°.
  • Macronutrients and their caloric values: proteins (4kcal/g), carbohydrates (4kcal/g), and fats (9kcal/g).
  • AMDR (Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range) for adults: CHOs (45-65%), proteins (10-35%), and fats (20-35%).
  • Proteins are essential for providing amino acids and amino nitrogen for the body. Essential amino acids include: Phenylalanine, Valine, Tryptophan, Threonine, Isoleucine, Methionine, Histidine, Arginine, Lysine, and Leucine.
  • The nutritional quality of proteins is determined by their ability to provide the essential amino acids required for tissue maintenance, measured in PDCAAS units.
  • Adequate sources of proteins include meat, poultry, fish, milk, wheat, corn, beans, nuts, and others.
  • Normal adult RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) for proteins is 0.8 g/kg body weight, while athletes need 1.0 g/kg, pregnant/lactating women require up to an additional 30 g/day, and children need 2.0 g/kg.
  • Proteins play a significant role in maintaining nitrogen balance, which is essential for growth, pregnancy, lactation, and recovery from illness.
  • Macronutrient malnutrition, specifically in the form of marasmus and kwashiorkor, can result from inadequate intake of proteins or energy. Malnutrition can cause various symptoms and health complications.
  • Complex carbohydrates, unlike simple carbs, are better for the diet as they provide a protein-sparing effect, which helps maintain muscle protein and inhibit gluconeogenesis.
  • Dietary fibers, which cannot be broken down by human digestive enzymes, have numerous benefits, including lowering serum LDL levels, reducing constipation, and promoting feelings of fullness.
  • Fats are an essential macronutrient, providing energy and essential fatty acids, as well as phospholipids for membrane function and fat-soluble vitamins for absorption.
  • Essential fatty acids include linoleic acid (ω-6) and α-linolenic acid (ω-3), which have various health benefits, such as decreasing blood clotting and reducing blood pressure.
  • RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) for total fat intake is 65 g/day, and for saturated fat intake is 20 g/day. Excessive fat intake can lead to atherosclerosis, heart disease, and obesity.


Test your knowledge on the nutritional importance of dietary macro and micronutrients, major dietary sources, recommended daily allowances, nutritional quality of proteins, types of dietary carbohydrates, fibers, and fats, and their benefits.

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