Lesson 3: Blood and Blood Vessels

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29 Questions

Which type of anemia is characterized by symptoms like fatigue, weakness, and paler skin?

Iron-deficiency Anemia

Which cancerous blood disorder affects the lymphatic system and immune cells?

Lymphoma

What is the main reason why blood cancers disrupt the production and operation of blood cells?

Cancerous cells in the blood

Which type of anemia is characterized by macrocytic red blood cells?

Sideroblastic Anemia

What is the primary location where the majority of blood cancers begin?

Bone Marrow

Which anemia type is characterized by a genetic abnormality affecting hemoglobin production?

Sickle Cell Anemia

What is the main function of red blood cells?

Transporting oxygen

Which component of blood is colorless due to the absence of hemoglobin?

White blood cells

What gives red blood cells their red pigment?

Hemoglobin

Which type of white blood cells is classified based on the presence and absence of granules in their cytoplasm?

Granulocytes

How much of an average adult's body weight does blood make up?

8%

Which component of blood is responsible for contributing to immunity and defense mechanisms?

White blood cells

What type of immunity is responsible for the production of antibodies by B-lymphocytes?

Humoral immunity

Which component of blood helps in blood clotting and coagulation?

Platelets

What are the specialized blood cells produced in the bone marrow?

Platelets

Which blood vessel type carries oxygenated blood away from the heart?

Arteries

Which part of the blood contains salts, nutrients, water, enzymes, and proteins?

Plasma

What drives cell-mediated immunity primarily?

T-cells

What is the main function of capillaries in the body?

Exchange oxygen, nutrients, and waste products between blood and tissues

Which type of blood circulation carries blood from the heart to all parts of the body?

Systemic Circulation

During which phase of a heartbeat does the heart muscle contract?

Systole

What happens during systole in terms of blood pressure?

Blood pressure increases

Which part of the body does Pulmonary Circulation primarily involve?

Lungs

How does the heart receive messages about when to pump more or less blood?

Via the Electrical System of the Heart

What is the main function of white blood cells in the body?

Defending the body against infections

Which part of the body does blood primarily travel to from the right ventricle?

Lungs

Which of the following is a type of blood cancer?

Leukemia

What is the composition of blood mainly responsible for transporting oxygen throughout the body?

Red blood cells

Which of the following blood disorders is characterized by a deficiency in clotting factors?

Von Willebrand disease

Study Notes

Types of Anemia

  • Acquired anemias: iron-deficiency anemia, macrocytic anemia, normocytic anemia
  • Inherited anemias: sickle cell anemia, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, thalassemia
  • Other types of anemia: hemolytic anemia, sideroblastic anemia, microcytic anemia

Symptoms of Anemia

  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Dizziness
  • Paler skin
  • Heart palpitation
  • Shortness of breath

Cancerous Blood Disorders

  • Leukemia: rapid production of irregular white blood cells in the bone marrow and blood
  • Lymphoma: cancer that affects the lymphatic system, which generates immune cells and drains excess fluid from the body
  • Myeloma: plasma cell cancer

Blood Composition

  • Blood is a fluid connective tissue consisting of blood cells, plasma, and platelets
  • Delivers oxygen and nutrients to various cells and tissues by circulating throughout the body
  • Makes up 8% of an individual’s body weight, with an average adult having around 5 to 6 liters of blood

Components of Blood

  • Red blood cells (RBCs): disc-shaped, responsible for transporting oxygen to tissues and organs
  • White blood cells (WBCs): colorless, contribute to immunity and defense mechanism, help fight infections and diseases
  • Platelets: specialized blood cells that help in blood clotting and coagulation
  • Plasma: liquid base of blood, makes up 55% of blood, consists of salts, nutrients, water, and enzymes

Types of White Blood Cells

  • Granulocytes: have granules in their cytoplasm, play a role in body defense and help fight viruses
  • Five types of WBCs, classified based on the presence and absence of granules in their cytoplasm

Blood Vessels

  • Arteries: carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body
  • Veins: carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart
  • Capillaries: allow for the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste products between the blood and surrounding tissues

Blood Circulation

  • Pulmonary circulation: short loop from the heart to the lungs and back again
  • Systemic circulation: carries blood from the heart to all the other parts of the body and back again
  • The heart beats through a continuous loop, with two distinct pathways: pulmonary and systemic circulation

Heart Function

  • The heart gets messages from the body to pump more or less blood depending on a person's needs
  • One complete heartbeat consists of two phases: systole (heart muscle contraction) and diastole (heart muscle relaxation)

Explore the components and functions of blood, a vital fluid connective tissue that delivers oxygen and nutrients to cells and tissues. Learn about its composition, circulation, and importance in the human body.

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