James Madison and His Role in Early American Government

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In what year were the votes of the Electoral College cast?


What was the temporary capital where George Washington traveled to in 1789?

New York

What type of government did the principles of the American Revolution require?


Why was the inauguration considered a more republican affair?

Because Washington wore a simple suit of black velvet

What was the mood when George Washington traveled to the temporary capital in New York?

Joyous and celebratory

Why was the trip from Mount Vernon to the temporary capital described as a prolonged coronation ceremony?

Because it resembled a royal procession

What was the main point of contention between Hamilton and Madison?

Control over fiscal policy

What was the symbol of federal power that was as threatening as a sovereign Supreme Court according to the text?

The national bank

What did the three Virginians within Washington’s official family mobilize to attack on constitutional grounds?

The national bank

What did Washington send to Hamilton for rebuttal before rendering his own verdict on the bank issue?

Separate briefs from Jefferson, Madison, and Randolph

What did Washington do with Hamilton's opinion on the bank issue?

Used it as the legal rationale he needed to support his own views

What was the constitutional clause that Hamilton argued granted implied powers to the federal government beyond the explicit powers specified in the document?

"Necessary and proper" clause (Article 1, Section 8)

What was Washington's preferred position in terms of his involvement in partisan battles?

Neutral observer

What was referred to as 'the residence question' in the text?

'Seat of government' location debate

What did Madison argue was the geographic midpoint of the nation on a north-south axis?

Mount Vernon itself

What did Hamilton agree to deliver in return for Madison’s pledge to permit passage of his assumption bill?

'Seat of government' location debate resolution

What did Washington manage to levitate above, according to the text?

The political landscape

What did one frustrated congressman suggest should be done due to Congress's inability to establish a 'seat of government'?

Rotate the capital between different states

Why does the author argue that Washington’s achievement must be recovered before it can be appreciated?

Because Washington took office when there was no viable American nation, and the prevailing assumption was that it could not endure.

What was the prevailing assumption among European observers regarding the American nation when Washington took office?

It was assumed to be too weak and fragile to endure.

What was the purpose of Washington's visit to the Jewish synagogue in Newport?

To publish an address on religious freedom

What did Washington consider a risk during his Southern tour in 1791?

His sedentary life as President

Why did Vice President John Adams ignite a debate in the Senate regarding regal titles for the President?

Because he was trying to be helpful in defining the President's title in a republic.

What did Washington's entourage of 11 horses include during his Southern tour?

His white parade steed and favorite greyhound

What was the outcome of the debate over regal titles for the President in the Senate?

The Senate resolved that the President should be called 'The President of the United States.'

What did the ladies of Charleston do when Washington took the dance floor during his Southern tour?

Fluttered alongside their fans

What did Alexander Hamilton emphasize regarding the President's social etiquette?

The President should maintain a balance between courtly formality and republican simplicity.

What was the solution to matters of social etiquette for the President?

Hosting weekly open houses called 'levees.'

What was one of the earliest editorial criticisms of Washington’s embodiment of authority during his Southern tour?

He was being treated like a demigod perfumed by the incense of addresses

Why did Washington's awkwardness at the levee fit his temperament nicely?

Because he had a preternatural ability to remain silent in social situations.

What did the complaint about Washington’s treatment at each stop during his Southern tour hark back to?

The suspicion of potent projection of political power by a singular figure

Why did Washington set off on a tour of New England in the fall of 1789?

To earn the right to be trusted with power

How did Washington's temperament contribute to creating a political atmosphere unimaginable in any modern-day national capital?

His natural dignity combined with formal etiquette created an atmosphere of aloofness and formality.

How did Thomas Jefferson describe Washington's administrative style?

"The hub of the wheel"

What did Washington initially interpret as required by the phrase 'the Advice and Consent of the Senate'?

His personal appearance in the Senate and direct solicitation of senatorial opinion on specific treaty provisions.

Why did Washington install the Cabinet system?

To have a civilian adaptation of his military staff

What was the result of Washington's interpretation of 'the Advice and Consent of the Senate' when he brought treaty proposals for Indian tribes?

The debate in the Senate became a shouting match over questions of procedure.

What impact did Washington's abrupt exit from the Senate have on future interpretations of 'the Advice and Consent of the Senate'?

It diminished the role of the Senate as an equal partner in treaty-making decisions.

What two skills were essential for the successful operation of Washington's administrative style?

Identifying talented individuals and trusting them with responsibility

Why did Washington go on a tour of New England in 1789 after his visit to the Senate?

To welcome New Englanders into becoming Americans after his visit to Rhode Island.

What did Washington do with routine business according to Thomas Jefferson?

He delegated it to the department heads at the rim

How did Washington treat the talented individuals he recruited?

He treated them as surrogate sons in his official family

Who was the precocious Virginian at the peak of his powers, having just completed a remarkable string of triumphs at the Constitutional Convention and the Virginia ratifying convention?

James Madison

Which individual drafted the address welcoming Washington to the Presidency and then drafted Washington’s response to it, making him a one-man shadow government?

James Madison

Who combined nearly spotless Revolutionary credentials with five years of diplomatic experience in Paris, all buoyed by a lyrical way with words and ideas most famously displayed in his draft of the Declaration of Independence?

Thomas Jefferson

Which individual had come out of impoverished origins in the Caribbean and displayed a dashing, out-of-my-way style that imposed itself ostentatiously?

Alexander Hamilton

Who had been the chief advocate for fiscal reform as the essential prerequisite for an energetic national government, making him the obvious choice as Secretary of Treasury once Robert Morris had declined?

Alexander Hamilton

Who was appointed Secretary of War and had served alongside Washington from Boston to Yorktown, subsuming his personality within Washington's leadership?

Henry Knox

Who was added as the new Chief Justice, bringing New York’s most distinguished legal and political mind to the mix, along with extensive foreign policy experience?

John Jay

Who was appointed as the first Attorney General, known for endless vacillation but with solid political connections within the Tidewater elite?

Edmund Randolph

What was Washington’s judgment of the assembled team?

He felt himself supported by able co-adjutors who harmonized well together.

What did Washington regard as a crucial step in creating what the Constitution called “a more perfect union”?

A unified body of national law.

What did Washington argue about the federal judiciary?

It should be considered as the Key-Stone of our political fabric.

What did John Marshall, Washington’s most loyal and influential disciple, move toward in subsequent decades?

A more coherent version of national law.

What was Washington's view of slavery as mentioned in the text?

He believed it to be a moral and political anachronism.

What was the significance of Benjamin Franklin's signature on the Quaker petition?

It transformed the petition into a subject for unavoidable national debate.

What was the outcome of the House debates in the spring of 1790 regarding slavery?

The debates represented the final opportunity to place slavery on the road to ultimate extinction.

Why did Washington refuse to commit himself to ending slavery when approached by Warner Mifflin?

He believed it was properly the province of Congress and might come before him for official decision.

What did Madison achieve through behind-the-scenes maneuvering in the House debates?

He managed to take slavery off the national agenda by making any legislation seeking to end it a state rather than federal prerogative.

What was Washington's highest public priority as per the text?

The creation of a unified American nation.

What was Hamilton's strategy regarding the national debt as described in the text?

Consolidate foreign and domestic debt into one central pile and fund federal debt at par.

What did Hamilton propose as part of his economic policy?

Assume all state debts and create a national bank to manage investments and payments at the federal level.

What was the outcome of Hamilton's economic policy?

Improved credit rating in foreign banks and surging productivity in commercial sector.

What was Washington's attitude towards Hamilton's economic policy?

He was initially skeptical but eventually came around to supporting it.

What does the text reveal about Washington's approach towards Supreme Court during his presidency?

He did not contest its supreme authority due to political considerations.

What did Washington believe would threaten the republican experiment in its infancy?

Sectional differences over slavery.

Test your knowledge on James Madison's significant contributions to the early American government, including his role in the Constitutional Convention, Virginia ratifying convention, The Federalist Papers, and his influence in the House of Representatives.

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