Jal Sampada in India: Challenges and Progress

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भारत के किस क्षेत्र में जल की उपलब्धता विभिन्नता का सामना होता है?

दक्षिणी अर्ध-सूखे क्षेत्रों में

जल संवर्धन से संबंधित किस समस्या का समाधान किया गया है?

अपर्याप्त बुनियादी संरचनाएं

किसके माध्यम से भारत का प्रमुख पानी प्रदान होता है?

नलों के माध्यम से

किसके लिए हिमनदों का प्रमुख स्रोत है?

सिंधु, गंगा, और ब्रह्मपुत्र

किसne 'Jal Shakti Ministry' 2019 में गठन कीya?

'Water Resources' मंत्रालay

'Climate change' ka asar kis prakar ki samasyaon par hota hai?

'Water distribution' par

क्या भारत की पारंपरिक जल प्रबंधन तंत्र के नाम निम्नलिखित में से हैं?

कैनाल-आधारित सिंचाई प्रणाली

किसने 2012 में राष्ट्रीय जल नीति की घोषणा की?

प्रेमेफरल कैनाल सिंचाई परियोजना

कौन-सी प्रक्रिया 'हरित क्रांति' के समय में कृषि उत्पादकता को परिवर्तित करने में महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाई?

पूर्वी कैनाल सिंचाई परियोजना

क्या 'राष्ट्रीय प्रकल्प' के रूप में कौन-सा परियोजना 'पुर्नले मौसम सिचाई' को प्रमोट करने का लक्ष्य रखता है?


'हरित क्रांति' में कौन-सा प्रोजेक्ट कृषि उत्पादकता में सुसंघति लेकर आया?

लहरी कैनाल सिंचाई परियोजना

'कल्स', 'बंधाइस', और 'आहर्स' के महत्व _____________.

'प्राचीन'के हैं

Study Notes

Jal Sampada in India: Ensuring Water Resources for a Growing Nation

Jal Sampada, a Sanskrit term that translates to "water resources," encompasses the intricate web of India's efforts to harness, conserve, and distribute water to meet the demands of a growing population and an ever-evolving economy. In order to understand Jal Sampada in India, let's delve into its various aspects.

History and Evolution

India's water management journey spans centuries, with the constructing of dams and reservoirs dating back to the fifth century BCE. Ancient India's indigenous water management systems, such as Kals, Bandhais, and Ahars, have been instrumental in conserving rainwater and recharging groundwater through runoff harvesting. As India modernized, the British introduced canal-based irrigation systems, which continued to evolve after independence. The Green Revolution of the 1960s brought about technologies like the Peripheral Canal Irrigation Project (PCIP) and Haryana's Bhakra Canal, transforming agricultural productivity.


India's Jal Sampada is governed by a plethora of laws, policies, and institutions. The National Water Policy of 2012 outlines the vision for water resources management and allocates roles and responsibilities among various ministries and agencies. The National Water Mission, established under the National Action Plan on Climate Change, aims to promote water use efficiency, conservation, reuse, and river basin management. The Jal Shakti Ministry, which was formed in 2019, integrates water resources, river development, and water supply and sanitation under a unified ministry.

Water Resources

India is endowed with a diverse array of water resources, including rivers, lakes, groundwater, and glaciers. The Ganges, Yamuna, Godavari, Kaveri, and the Brahmaputra are among India's longest rivers, which flow into various lakes and wetlands such as the Vembanad Lake, Wular Lake, and the Keoladeo National Park's wetlands. Groundwater, which accounts for approximately 40% of India's water supply, is accessed primarily through tube wells and bore wells. India's glaciers, which cover 10% of the Himalayan region, serve as a vital source of water for the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra basins.


Despite India's rich water resources, it faces multiple challenges, including:

  1. Imbalance in water distribution: Water availability varies greatly across the country, with arid regions in the west and semi-arid regions in the south experiencing water scarcity.
  2. Pollution: Water pollution from agricultural runoff, industrial waste, and municipal wastewater has resulted in the deterioration of water quality in rivers, lakes, and groundwater sources.
  3. Climate change: Climate change impacts, such as droughts, floods, and glacier melting, are altering the hydrological cycle and water availability.
  4. Inadequate infrastructure: Water infrastructure, including dams, canals, and irrigation systems, is often inadequate or poorly maintained, leading to water losses and inefficient water use.


India has made significant strides in addressing its water challenges through various initiatives.

  1. The National Rural Drinking Water Program (NRDWP) and the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) have brought piped water connections to millions of rural households, improving access to safe drinking water.
  2. The government has invested in the construction and maintenance of water storage structures like dams and reservoirs, which have increased water storage capacity and improved irrigation efficiency.
  3. The Atal Bhujal Yojana (ABHY), a groundwater management program, has been launched in over 80 districts in India to promote groundwater conservation and recharge.
  4. The National River Conservation Plan (NRCP) aims to restore the ecological health of India's rivers and improve water quality.


Jal Sampada in India is a complex topic, with significant challenges and opportunities. By understanding India's water resources and the initiatives underway to address its challenges, we can work towards a more equitable and sustainable water future. As India continues to grow and develop, it is essential to prioritize water conservation, pollution reduction, and infrastructure development in order to ensure its water resources support its people and economy for generations to come.

Explore the history, governance, water resources, challenges, and progress of Jal Sampada in India. Learn about the initiatives and policies aimed at ensuring water availability, quality, and sustainability in a growing nation.

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