Introduction to Statistics: Understanding the Basics

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What is the science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analyzing information to draw conclusions or answer questions?

Statistics

According to the Merriam Webster dictionary, what are 'factual information used as a basis for reasoning, discussion, calculation' called?

Data

What is the set of all entities under study called?

Universe

What is the set of all possible values of the variable called?

Population

What is the subset of the universe or the population called?

Sample

In conducting research, what do we typically look at that is often difficult and expensive to gain access to the entire population?

Sample

What is the main purpose of descriptive statistics?

To organize and summarize the information

What is the distinction between qualitative and quantitative variables?

Quantitative variables represent an amount or quantity, while qualitative variables yield categorical responses

What does inferential statistics do?

Generalize information from the sample to the population

When is inferential statistics not necessary?

When the entire population is studied

What is a continuous variable?

A quantitative variable that represents an amount or quantity

What is the nominal level of measurement used for?

Identifying, naming, classifying, or categorizing objects or events

What do qualitative variables represent?

A quantitative variable that yields categorical responses

What does a discrete variable entail?

A quantitative variable with a finite number of possible values or a countable number of possible values

What is the definition of variables?

The characteristics that differentiate every individual within the population/sample

What is the step in the process referred to as Inferential statistics?

Generalizing information from the sample to the population

The Philippine Mental Health Associations contacts 1,028 teenagers who are 13 to 17 years of age and live in Antipolo City and asked whether or not they had been prescribed medications for any mental disorders, such as depression or anxiety. ANSWER: Population: Teenagers 13 to 17 years of age who live in Antipolo City Sample: 1,028 teenagers 13 to 17 years of age who live in ______

Antipolo City

A farmer wanted to learn about the weight of his soybean crop. He randomly sampled 100 plants and weighted the soybeans on each plant. ANSWER: Population: Entire soybean crop Sample: 100 ______ selected

plants

Descriptive statistics describe the information collected through numerical measurements, charts, graphs, and ______. The main purpose of descriptive statistics is to provide an overview of the information collected.

tables

In this step the information collected from the sample is generalized to the population. This process is referred to as ______ statistics.

Inferential

Variables are the characteristics that differentiate every individual within the population/sample. Variables can be classified into two groups: 1.Qualitative variables is variable that yields categorical responses. It is a word or a code that represents a class or ______.

category

Quantitative variables may be further classified into: Discrete variable is a quantitative variable that either a finite number of possible values or a countable number of possible values. The terms countable means that the values result from counting, such as 0, 1, 2, 3, and ______.

so on

A continuous variable is a quantitative variable that has an infinite number of possible values that are not ______.

countable

Nominal Level - Identify, name, classify, or categorize objects or events. Example: Method of payment (cash, check, debit card, credit card), Type ______.

of

Variables are the characteristics that differentiate every individual within the population/sample. Variables can be classified into two groups: 1.Qualitative variables is variable that yields categorical responses. It is a word or a code that represents a ______ or category.

class

In this step the information collected from the sample is generalized to the population. This process is referred to as ______ statistics.

Inferential

Statistics is the science of collecting, organizing, summarizing, and analyzing information to draw conclusions or answer questions. What information is referred to in the definition?

data

A researcher must determine the question(s) he or she wants answered. The question(s) must be detailed so that it identifies a group that is to be studied and the questions that are to be answered. The group to be studied is called the ______.

population

Gaining access to an entire population is often difficult and expensive. In conducting research, we typically look at a subset of the population called a ______.

sample

Universe is the set of all entities under study. Population is the set of all possible values of the variable. An individual is a person or object that is a member of the ______ being studied.

population

Sample is the subset of the universe or the population. A research objective is presented. Identify the research ______.

objective

According to the Merriam Webster dictionary, data are 'factual information used as a basis for reasoning, discussion, ______'.

calculation

Explore the fundamentals of statistics, including the collection, organization, summarization, and analysis of data to draw conclusions and answer questions. Learn about the research objective and the process of statistical analysis.

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