Indian Struggle for Freedom: ICSE Class 10 History Quiz

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Raja Ram Mohan Roy founded the Brahmo Samaj in 1928.


The Extremists advocated for peaceful negotiations with the British.


Mahatma Gandhi promoted nonviolent resistance techniques like Satyagraha.


The Indian Independence Movement spanned over two centuries.


The discontent among Indians during the nineteenth century was due to decreased taxes.


The East India Company was a religious organization in Bengal.


Bal Gangadhar Tilak popularized the slogan Swaraj meaning 'self-rule' through newspapers, public gatherings, and even poetry.


The Swaraj Party was formed in 1929 under the leadership of Motilal Nehru and C.R.Das.


The Montagu Chelmsford Reforms of 1919 allowed Indians full independence without any limitations.


Jawaharlal Nehru proposed the goal of Purna Swaraj at the Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress in 1929.


India was granted dominion status by Britain on August 15, 1947.


Partition led to the creation of three separate nations: India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.


Study Notes

Indian Struggle for Freedom: A Journey through ICSE Class 10 History

As you delve into your studies of India's past during ICSE Grade 10 history lessons, one of the most significant periods to explore is our nation's journey towards independence from British colonial rule—a movement for freedom which spanned over two centuries. Let's take a closer look at this pivotal chapter of history, examining key aspects such as its origins and milestones along with their impact on contemporary society.

Origins and Early Stirrings

The story begins in earnest at the commencement of the nineteenth century when East India Company, once a powerful trading entity, began expanding its territorial footprint across India. This period witnessed growing discontent among Indians owing to increased taxes, loss of traditional rights, and political influence by foreigners.

In Bengal, Raja Ram Mohan Roy founded the Brahmo Samaj in 1828, championing religious reforms and advocating for women’s empowerment. Meanwhile, more radical ideas were being propagated by the likes of Lokmanya Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal who formed the extremist faction known as the 'Extremists'. Their aim was to promote armed revolution against the British.

Nationalism Gains Momentum

By the turn of the twentieth century, nationalistic ideals had gained considerable ground. Mahatma Gandhi's arrival in South Africa signified his emergence onto the global stage, spearheading nonviolent resistance techniques like Satyagraha. He brought these methods back home following his return to India in 1915.

It wasn't just Gandhi; other prominent figures played crucial roles. Bal Gangadhar Tilak popularized the slogan Swaraj (self-rule) through newspapers, public gatherings, and even poetry. As tensions mounted between factions, Congress splintered in 1907, giving birth to the Swaraj Party under the leadership of Motilal Nehru and C.R. Das—prominent leaders advocating for immediate self-governance.

After World War I, India experienced a surge in national sentiment, fueled largely by widespread disillusionment regarding Britain's promise of autonomy. In response, the Montagu Chelmsford Reforms of 1919 introduced dyarchy, allowing Indians limited representation in provincial legislatures. However, this move failed to quell simmering resentments leading up to Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar where hundreds of peaceful protestors were killed by British forces.

Towards Self-Rule

Following these tragic events, India saw a dramatic shift in the focus of her struggle towards achieving full independence. At the Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress in 1929, Jawaharlal Nehru proposed the goal of Purna Swaraj, envisioning complete sovereignty without any external interference. A Declaration of Independence was drafted, later adopted by Congress delegates at the special session held in Mumbai on January 26, 1930—now celebrated annually as Republic Day.

With mounting pressure from within and beyond, Britain finally relented, granting India dominion status effective August 15, 1947. After decades of sacrifice and countless lives lost, independence arrived with partition, creating two separate nations, India and Pakistan.

As we embark upon understanding the tumultuous era of Indian independence, it remains vital to appreciate the grit and determination exhibited by its protagonists, whose efforts have shaped our modern reality. Another important aspect worth exploring is how their vision continues to resonate strongly today and influences societal dynamics in numerous ways.

Test your knowledge of India's fight for independence from British colonial rule as you explore key events, leaders, and ideologies that shaped the nation's history during the ICSE Grade 10 curriculum. Delve into the origins, nationalist movements, and significant milestones that culminated in India's quest for self-rule.

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