Indian Agriculture: Past, Present, and Future

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कृषि क्या है?

संस्कृत में 'कृषि' का अर्थ

किस समय कृषि भारत में उत्पन्न हुआ था?

9,000 से 10,000 वर्ष पहले

'हरित क्रांति' किन सालों में प्रारंभ हुई थी?

1960 के दशक में

2021 में, भारत की GDP का कितना हिस्सा कृषि सेक्टर से सम्बंधित है?

19%

किसने 'हरित मंफेस्टो' का प्रस्ताव किया?

ब्रिटिश राज

'हरित क्रांति' के प्रारंभिक वर्षों में, किनों की प्रमुखता से किसे पुरस्कृत किया गया?

मक्का

किसानी क्षेत्र के लिए मुख्य चुनौतियों में से कौन-सी है?

जलवायु परिवर्तन

किसके लिए संभावनाएं और चुनौतियाँ हैं - स्माल-स्केल किसानी या बड़े किसानी?

स्माल-स्केल किसानी

'कृषि' में समेत हमें किस प्रमुख मुसीबत से निपटना हो सकता है?

कम पानी

कौन-सी पहल का हिस्सा है 'प्रधानमंत्री किसान सम्मान निधि'?

राष्ट्रीय खाद्य सुरक्षा मिशन

'प्रस्टीकरण', 'महिला किसानों का समर्थन', 'कृषि मार्गनिर्देशन' में से कहाँ से हमें सहायता मिल सकती है?

'महिला किसानों का समर्थन'

Study Notes

Krishi: A Comprehensive Look at Indian Agriculture

Krishi, a Sanskrit term meaning "agriculture," has profoundly shaped India's history and economy for thousands of years. The Indian agricultural sector has grown into an intricate and multifaceted realm, nurturing the country's ecosystem and population. This article aims to provide a fact-rich exploration of Krishi, covering its history, modern landscape, and the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead.

Origin and Evolution

Agriculture in India dates back to the Neolithic period, around 9,000 to 10,000 years ago, with the earliest evidence of cultivation and animal husbandry in the Indus Valley Civilization. Over centuries, Krishi evolved, and by the 19th and 20th centuries, it had undergone monumental changes fueled by the British Raj, green revolution, and the Green Manifesto.

The Green Revolution, initiated in the 1960s, brought technological advancements like high-yielding crop varieties, irrigation systems, and chemical fertilizers, dramatically increasing India's food production. The Green Manifesto, introduced in the 1980s, focused on sustainable agriculture and addressing ecological concerns.

Modern Landscape

Indian agriculture is a vast, complex industry with significant contributions to the national economy and livelihoods. As of 2021, the sector comprises 19% of India's GDP, employing 45% of the workforce. Indian agriculture is primarily rain-fed and has a diverse array of crops, including rice, wheat, pulses, oilseeds, sugarcane, and cotton.

Small-scale farmers, who make up around 85% of the country's total farmholdings, are the backbone of Krishi in India. However, larger farm sizes are becoming more common with the rise of agribusiness, which brings opportunities for productivity and efficiency but also challenges for small-scale farmers.

Challenges and Opportunities

Like any other sector, Krishi faces numerous challenges. Climate change, soil degradation, water scarcity, and the need for technological innovation are some of the prominent hurdles that India's agricultural industry must overcome.

However, the Indian government has implemented several initiatives to boost productivity, increase farm incomes, and enhance food security. These include the National Agriculture Marketing Policy, Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN), and the National Food Security Mission. In addition, modern technologies like precision farming, drones, and automation are being adopted to optimize processes and improve efficiency.

Future Outlook

The future of Krishi in India holds immense potential, as the government continues to invest in agriculture and allied sectors, promoting sustainable, high-yielding, and climate-resilient farming practices. Technological innovation, human capital development, and strategic policy interventions will continue to drive growth and productivity in India's agricultural sector.

However, the challenges Krishi faces are daunting, and addressing them requires urgent and concerted efforts from government, industry, and academia. By leveraging technology, opening up new markets, and promoting sustainable and resilient agricultural practices, India can ensure food security, improve livelihoods, and build a more prosperous future for its people.

In conclusion, Krishi is a vital and vibrant sector in India, bearing immense potential for growth and development. By addressing the challenges and seizing the opportunities that lie ahead, India can pave the way for a sustainable and prosperous future for its agricultural sector and its people.

Explore the rich history, current landscape, and future prospects of Indian agriculture with a deep dive into the sector's evolution, challenges, and opportunities. Discover how initiatives like the Green Revolution, modern technologies, and government policies are shaping the trajectory of Krishi in India.

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