Image Size Calculation Formula

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What is another name for pixel replication method?

Nearest neighbor interpolation

What is the major disadvantage of the pixel replication method?

Creates a blurry picture

What is the limitation of the zero-order hold method?

Limited to power of 2 for zooming

What does 'K' stand for in the K-Times zooming method?

Zooming factor

What is the advantage of the K-Times zooming method?

Avoids creating blurry pictures

What is the main purpose of the zero-order hold method in image zooming?

To interpolate between adjacent elements

What is the primary reason for decreasing the contribution of the red color and increasing the contribution of the green color in the grayscale image equation?

Green color has a soothing effect on the eyes and has less wavelength than red color.

In the context of pixel resolution, what is the advantage of maintaining a higher pixel resolution?

It allows for better zooming and detail visibility.

What does the aspect ratio of an image indicate?

The ratio between the width and height of the image.

What is the basic concept of zooming in digital image processing?

Enlarging a picture to make it clearer and more visible.

What is the primary difference between optical zoom and digital zoom in camera technology?

Optical zoom involves hardware movement, while digital zoom is achieved through software processing.

What is the formula for calculating the megapixels of a camera using pixel resolution?

(Column pixels * row pixels) / 1 Million

What does the k-time zooming algorithm offer as an advantage?

Ability to compute the zoom of any factor

How is spatial resolution defined?

As the smallest discernible detail in an image

What measure is used for spatial resolution in mobile phones and tablets?

Pixels per inch (PPI)

What is the calculation for determining PPI of a device?

Diagonal resolution in pixels divided by diagonal size in inches

What is the difference between DPI and PPI?

DPI measures spatial resolution for printers while PPI measures it for devices

What does quantization involve when digitizing an image?

Setting levels to the coordinate values on the x-axis

What is the main problem with the average method of converting RGB to grayscale?

It results in a grayscale image that is too dark

Why does the average method result in a rather black image?

Because it takes an average of the three colors without considering their individual contributions

What is the main advantage of the weighted method in converting RGB to grayscale?

It preserves the original color information

How does the weighted method address the problem faced by the average method?

By taking into account the different contributions of the three colors

What is one drawback of the average method in RGB to grayscale conversion?

It ignores the luminosity of the original image

In what way does the weighted method improve upon the average method for RGB to grayscale conversion?

By adjusting for differences in color wavelengths and contributions

What happens to the image when the gray levels are reduced from 256 to 128?

There is minimal effect on the image

What phenomenon becomes more visible in the image when the gray levels are reduced to 16?

Contouring

What is the impact of increasing the number of gray levels on the effect of contouring?

Increasing gray levels reduces contouring

According to the text, what do ISO preference curves show about the effect of contouring?

It depends on both the decreasing of gray level resolution and the image detail

What was the result of the experiment with three different images and varied gray level resolution?

The second image was subject to contouring earlier than the first image

According to the text, what does increasing the number of details in an image do to the effect of contouring?

Increase in details delays the appearance of contouring

What is the purpose of dithering in image processing?

To create illusions of colors that are not actually present

How does dithering help in improving thresholding?

By creating sharp edges where gradients are smooth

What does a histogram in image processing show?

Frequency of pixel intensities

What is the range of the x-axis in an 8-bpp image histogram?

0 to 255

How can histograms be used to adjust the contrast of an image?

By equalizing the image intensity values

What does dithering aim to achieve in image processing?

Creation of illusions of color presence

How does thresholding contribute to dithering?

By creating sharp edges where gradients are smooth

What is the primary purpose of a histogram in image processing?

To analyze and adjust contrast and brightness

In what way does dithering affect the spatial resolution of an image?

It decreases the spatial resolution

What is the formula for calculating the size of an image?

Size = rows * cols * bpp

What does 1 bpp represent in terms of number of colors?

2 colors

What does a pixel value of 0 denote in the case of 8 bpp?

Black color

What is the primary characteristic of a binary image?

Contains only two pixel values

What happens to the image size when the bits per pixel (bpp) increases?

The size of the image increases

What does a grayscale image with 256 different shades of gray correspond to in terms of bits per pixel?

8 bpp

What is the relationship between the pixel and the CCD array?

A pixel is the smallest division of the CCD array

How is the total number of pixels calculated for an image?

Number of rows multiplied by number of columns

What does a pixel value of 0 indicate?

Black color formation

What does perspective transformation refer to in digital image processing?

Converting a 3D world into a 2D image based on distance and angles

What does the concept of frame of reference relate to in perspective transformation?

It represents a set of values for transformation calculations

What is the relationship between shutter speed and shutter time?

Inversely proportional

How does increasing the ISO affect the image?

It brightens the picture

What is the relationship between the aperture opening and the amount of light allowed to enter the camera?

They are directly proportional

What happens when the shutter speed is increased and the shutter time is decreased?

The image becomes brighter

How does the number of blades in the aperture affect the size of the opening?

The more blades, the larger the opening

What does the ISO measure in a camera?

Sensor sensitivity to light

In terms of brightness, what effect does a wide aperture opening have on an image?

It makes the image brighter

What is a pixel in an image?

The smallest element of color in an image

How is the size of the aperture denoted?

$f$

How does decreasing the ISO affect the image?

It reduces the brightness of the picture

What mathematical relationship best explains the concept of aperture size?

$f = \frac{1}{A^2}$

What effect does a narrow aperture opening have on the amount of light entering the camera?

Allows less light to enter

How many different colors are present in a 5-bit color format image?

32

What is the distribution of the 16-bit color format when represented in the RGB format according to the text?

5 bits for R, 6 bits for G, 5 bits for B

What is the significance of an alpha channel in the distribution of a 16-bit color format image?

Indicates the transparency of the color

What does an 8-bit gray scale image contain behind it, according to the text?

One matrix of R, G, and B

Which color code represents the color white in the RGB color model?

(255,255,255)

What is the purpose of the PPM format mentioned in the text?

Supported by the Linux operating system

What combination of colors forms the cyan color?

Green and blue

What is the decimal code for the gray color in an 8-bit format?

(128,128,128)

Which color model is commonly used in color printers and consists of cyan, magenta, yellow, and black?

CMYK

What is the decimal code for the yellow color?

(255,255,0)

Which color is formed from the combination of red and blue?

Magenta

What portion of the RGB components is set to its maximum in order to produce the blue color?

Blue

In an 8-bit format, what represents the midpoint for gray color?

-128

What combination of colors forms the magenta color?

$R + B$

Which two colors are combined to produce the yellow color?

$R + G$

What is another name for cyan in the RGB color model?

Aqua

What type of signals does image processing deal with?

Signals measured over spatial dimensions

What is the fundamental definition of an image in the context of signal processing?

A two-dimensional array of numbers with values ranging between 0 and 255

Which best describes the relationship between a digital image and a signal?

The digital image is a two-dimensional signal measured over spatial dimensions

What is the primary focus of machine vision or computer vision systems?

Developing systems where the input is an image and the output is information

What does digital image processing primarily focus on?

Manipulating digital images using a digital computer

Which application is cited as a common example of digital image processing?

Adobe Photoshop

What are the primary methods taught in the course related to interpreting digital images?

Performing operations like blurring and edge detection

What does the chapter slides cover in addition to digital image processing?

Important concepts related to signals and systems

What is the main difference between analog and digital signals?

Analog signals are continuous while digital signals are discontinuous

Which step is involved in converting an analog signal to a digital signal?

Quantization

What is the purpose of an Analog-to-digital Converter (ADC) in the context of digital signals?

Quantizing the discrete values

Why do we need to convert an analog signal to a digital signal?

To store the signal in a digital format for processing

Who is credited with building the first portable camera in 1685?

Johann Zahn

What was the first photograph taken of, and by whom?

A view from the window at Le Gras, by Joseph Nicephore Niepce

What is the significance of Leica and Argus in the history of photography?

They were the first cameras to use the 35mm format

Who is credited with developing and installing the very first system of analog CCTV cameras?

Walter Bruch

What is the primary difference between analog and digital signals?

Analog signals are continuous while digital signals are discrete.

How does artificial intelligence relate to image processing?

It involves developing computer-aided diagnosis systems for interpreting medical images.

What is the main characteristic of a grayscale image?

It conveys information about any measurable quantity through time or space.

In the context of computer keyboard signals, what do digital signals represent?

ASCII values of the pressed keys

What was the primary reason for the popularity of the Sony Mavica (the magnetic video camera) in 1981?

It could store a large number of images on a floppy disk

In the electromagnetic spectrum, what is the visible spectrum mainly composed of?

Violet, indigo, blue, green, orange, yellow, and red colors

What is the primary application of digital image processing in the field of remote sensing?

Detecting infrastructure damages caused by earthquakes

What does image sharpening and restoration in digital image processing primarily involve?

Manipulating images to achieve the desired result

What is the primary purpose of pattern recognition in the field of computer vision?

Recognizing objects in images and training systems for pattern changes

How does increasing the number of dimensions required to define a position affect the space in which the object resides?

It increases the complexity of the space

What is the primary goal of color processing in digital image processing?

To process different types of colored images and color spaces

What is the significance of the three coordinates: longitude, latitude, and altitude, in defining a position on Earth?

They define the position in 3-dimensional space

In digital image processing, what is the primary difference between the image formation process in analog cameras and digital cameras?

The image formation in analog cameras involves chemical reactions on a strip, while digital cameras use a CCD array of sensors for image formation.

What aspect of the human eye's function is adopted by the basic principle followed by cameras?

The angle formation in the human eye allows perception of the height and depth of objects, which is adopted by cameras.

What happens when light passes through a camera in an analog camera's image formation process?

The light reacts with silver halide particles on the strip to produce the negative of the image.

How does a digital camera's CCD array of sensors contribute to image formation?

It senses the image and converts it into an electric signal for further processing.

What type of sensor is each sensor of the CCD array?

Analog sensor

What is the primary response of each sensor in the CCD array directly equal to?

Energy of light (photon)

What can be achieved from the CCD array due to its two-dimensional formation?

Complete image

What is the limitation imposed by the number of sensors in the CCD array?

Detail capture

What does each sensor in the CCD array have against each photon particle that strikes it?

Only one value

What do we count and store to measure accurately the photons striking the CCD array?

Photon levels

What external sensors are mentioned as being introduced to measure the photons striking the CCD array?

CMOS sensors

Which value does each sensor of the CCD array refer to?

Pixel value

Learn how to calculate the dimensions of a new image based on the original image dimensions using a simple formula. In this quiz, you'll explore the advantages and disadvantages of using the specified formula for resizing images.

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