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Hypoglycemia and Glucose Tolerance Test Quiz

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EnergyEfficientWilliamsite6552
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13 Questions

Following overnight fasting, hypoglycemia in adults is defined as a glucose of:

<=45 mg/dL (<=2.5 mmol/L)

The following results are from a 21-year old patient with a back injury who appears otherwise healthy: Whole Blood Glu : 77mg/dL (4.2 mmol/L) Serum Blood Glu: 88 mg/dL (4.8mmol/L) CSF glucose: 56 mg/dL (3.1 mmol/L) The best interpretation of these results is that:

all values are consistent with a normal healthy individual

The preparation of a patient for standard glucose tolerance testing should include:

a high carbohydrate diet for 3 days

If a fasting glucose was 90 mg/dL, which of the following 2-hour postprandial glucose results would most closely represent normal glucose metabolism?

100 mg/dL (5.5 mmol/L)

A healthy person with a blood glucose of 80 mg/dL (4.4 mmol/L) would have a simultaneously determined cerebrospinal fluid glucose value of:

50 mg/dL (2.3 mmol/L)

A 25-year old man became nauseated and vomited 90 minutes after receiving a standard 75 g carbohydrate dose for an oral glucose tolerance test. The best course of action is to:

draw blood for glucose and discontinue test

Cerebrospinal fluid for glucose assay should be:

analyzed immediately

Which of the following 2 hour postprandial glucose values demonstrates unequivocal hyperglycemia diagnostic for diabetes mellitus?

200 mg/dL (11.0 mmol/L)

Serum levels that define hypoglycemia in pre-term or low birth weight infants are:

lower than adults

A 45-year-old woman has a fasting serum glucose concentration of 95 mg/dL (5.2 mmol/L) and a 2-hour-postprandial glucose concentration of 105 mg/dL (5.8 mmol/L). The statement which best describes this patient's fasting serum glucose concentration is:

normal; reflecting glycogen breakdown by the liver

Pregnant women with symptoms of thirst, frequent urination or unexplained weight loss should have which of the following tests performed?

glucose tolerance test

In the fasting state, the arterial and capillary blood glucose concentration varies from the venous glucose concentration by approximately how many mg/dL (mmol/L)?

5 mg/dL (0.27 mmol/L) higher

The conversion of glucose or other hexoses into lactate or pyruvate is called:

glycolysis

Study Notes

Glucose Measurement

  • Hypoglycemia in adults is defined as a glucose level below 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L) after an overnight fast.
  • In the given patient, whole blood glucose is 77 mg/dL (4.2 mmol/L), serum blood glucose is 88 mg/dL (4.8 mmol/L), and CSF glucose is 56 mg/dL (3.1 mmol/L).

Glucose Tolerance Testing

  • Preparation for standard glucose tolerance testing includes overnight fasting.
  • A fasting glucose of 90 mg/dL (5 mmol/L) would correspond to a 2-hour postprandial glucose result of around 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) for normal glucose metabolism.

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Glucose

  • A healthy person with a blood glucose of 80 mg/dL (4.4 mmol/L) would have a CSF glucose value of around 60-70 mg/dL (3.3-3.9 mmol/L).
  • CSF for glucose assay should be collected in a fluoride-containing tube to inhibit glycolysis.

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)

  • If a patient becomes nauseated and vomits 90 minutes after receiving a standard 75 g carbohydrate dose for an OGTT, the test should be stopped and restarted at a later time.

Diabetes Diagnosis

  • A 2-hour postprandial glucose value of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher demonstrates unequivocal hyperglycemia diagnostic for diabetes mellitus.

Hypoglycemia in Infants

  • Serum levels that define hypoglycemia in pre-term or low birth weight infants are below 40 mg/dL (2.2 mmol/L).

Glucose Concentrations

  • A fasting serum glucose concentration of 95 mg/dL (5.2 mmol/L) is considered impaired fasting glucose.
  • Pregnant women with symptoms of thirst, frequent urination, or unexplained weight loss should have a 2-hour OGTT performed.

Blood Glucose Variations

  • In the fasting state, arterial and capillary blood glucose concentrations vary from venous glucose concentration by approximately 5-10 mg/dL (0.3-0.6 mmol/L).

Glycolysis

  • The conversion of glucose or other hexoses into lactate or pyruvate is called glycolysis.

Test your knowledge on hypoglycemia in adults, interpretation of glucose test results, and preparation for glucose tolerance testing. This quiz also covers the best course of action in response to specific glucose tolerance test scenarios.

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