How well do you know the concept of dharma?

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By jwblackwell

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9 Questions

What is the meaning of the word dharma in Hinduism?

What is the antonym of dharma?

What does dharma mean in Jainism?

What is the meaning of dharma in Sikhism?

What is the origin of the word dharma?

What are the two categories of dharma according to Patanjali Yoga?

What is the Tattvartha Sutra?

What does the Ashoka Chakra, a depiction of the dharmachakra, represent?

What is the Noble Eightfold Path in Buddhism based on?

Summary

The concept of dharma is central to Indian philosophy and religion, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, and others. It has multiple meanings, including "righteousness," "merit," and "religious and moral duties." In Hinduism, dharma is one of the four components of the Puruṣārtha, the aims of life, and signifies behaviors that are considered to be in accord with Ṛta, or the order that makes life and the universe possible. In Buddhism, dharma means "cosmic law and order" and is also the term for "phenomena." In Jainism, dharma refers to the teachings of Tirthankara and the body of doctrine pertaining to the purification and moral transformation of human beings. In Sikhism, dharma means the path of righteousness and proper religious practice and one's own moral duties toward God. The word dharma has roots in the Sanskrit dhr-, which means to hold or to support, and is related to Latin firmus (firm, stable). Dharma is a central concept in Indian philosophy and religion, and its meaning has evolved over several millennia. The antonym of dharma is adharma, meaning that which is "not dharma." There have been numerous attempts to translate ancient Sanskrit literature with the word dharma into German, English, and French, but the word has a long and varied history and straddles a complex set of meanings and interpretations. Dharma is difficult to define succinctly, but it includes ideas such as duty, rights, character, vocation, religion, customs, and all behavior considered appropriate, correct, or morally upright. The meaning of the word dharma depends on the context, and its meaning has evolved as ideas of Hinduism have developed through history. In certain contexts, dharma designates human behaviors considered necessary for order of things in the universe, principles that prevent chaos, and behaviors and action necessary to all life in nature, society, family, as well as at the individual level. Dharma encompasses ideas such as duty, rights, character, vocation, religion, customs, and all behavior considered appropriate, correct, or morally upright. The antonym of dharma is adharma (Sanskrit: अधर्म), meaning that which is "not dharma." According to Pandurang Vaman Kane, author of the authoritative book History of Dharmaśāstra, the word dharma appears at least fifty-six times in the hymns of the Rigveda, as an adjective or noun. According to Paul Horsch, the word dharma has its origin in Vedic Hinduism. The evolving literature of Hinduism linked dharma to two other important concepts: Ṛta and Māyā. In Hinduism, dharma generally includes various aspects, such as duty, rights, laws, conduct, virtues, and the "right way of living."Overview of Dharma in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism

  • Dharma is a universal principle of law, order, harmony, and truth in Hinduism, acting as the regulatory moral principle of the universe.

  • The good, morally upright, law-abiding king in Hindu epics is referred to as "dharmaraja".

  • Hindu epics present a series of moral problems and life situations, providing symbolic treatise about life, virtues, customs, morals, ethics, law, and other aspects of dharma.

  • Vatsyayana suggested that dharma is not merely in one's actions, but also in words one speaks or writes and in thought.

  • Patanjali Yoga explains dharma in two categories: yamas (restraints) and niyamas (observances).

  • Some texts of Hinduism outline dharma for society and at the individual level, including the four stages of life: brahmacārya, gṛhastha, vānprastha or aranyaka, and sannyāsa.

  • Dharma is dependent on poverty and prosperity in a society, according to Hindu dharma scriptures.

  • Dharma is necessary for individual and society, according to Hindu philosophy.

  • Dharmashastra is a record of guidelines and rules in Hinduism.

  • In Buddhism, dharma means cosmic law and order and is also applied to the teachings of the Buddha.

  • In Jainism, dharma means the teachings of the Jinas, or teachings of any competing spiritual school, a supreme path, socio-religious duty, and that which is the highest mangala (holy).

  • The Tattvartha Sutra, a major Jain text, defines dharma as that which is in conformity with the nature of the universe.

  • Dharma is employed in Chan Buddhism in a specific context in relation to the transmission of authentic doctrine, understanding, and bodhi.The Concept of Dharma in Different Religions and Texts

  • Jainism mentions daśa dharma (ten dharmas) including virtues like forbearance, modesty, self-restraint, and celibacy.

  • Jainism's dharmāstikāya refers to motion and is one of the five categories of non-soul substances.

  • Sikhism's dharam means the path of righteousness and proper religious practice.

  • The Guru Granth Sahib connotes dharma as duty and moral values.

  • The ancient Tamil moral text of the Tirukkuṟaḷ or Kural is completely and exclusively based on aṟam or dharma.

  • The Naladiyar follows a similar pattern as that of the Kural in emphasizing aṟam or dharma.

  • The Ashoka Chakra, a depiction of the dharmachakra, is the central motif on India's flag.

  • The dharmachakra represents the eightfold path in Buddhism.

  • In Hinduism, dharma means duty, ethics, law, and righteousness.

  • The four stages of life (ashramas) in Hinduism - brahmacharya, grihastha, vanaprastha, and sannyasa - are based on dharma.

  • The Bhagavad Gita emphasizes performing one's duty (swadharma) as a way to achieve liberation.

  • In Buddhism, the Noble Eightfold Path is based on dharma and is a means to end suffering.

Description

Test your knowledge on the concept of dharma with this informative quiz! Dharma is a central concept in Indian philosophy and religion, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, and others. This quiz will cover the multiple meanings and interpretations of dharma, as well as its significance in various religious and philosophical texts. Challenge yourself and see how much you know about this complex and important concept.

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