How much do you really know about graffiti?

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jwblackwell
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9 Questions

What is graffiti?

What is the origin of the term 'graffiti'?

What did graffiti in the classical world represent?

When did contemporary graffiti art originate?

What is yarnbombing?

What is the estimated cost of graffiti removal in the US per year?

What is the purpose of graffiti databases?

What is the Anti-Social Behaviour Act 2003 in the UK?

What is the Vandalism Act of 1966 in Singapore?

Summary

A Brief History of Graffiti

  • Graffiti is art that is written, painted or drawn on a wall or other surface, without permission and within public view.

  • Graffiti has existed since ancient times, with examples dating back to ancient Egypt, ancient Greece, and the Roman Empire.

  • Graffiti is a controversial subject and is considered vandalism in most countries.

  • The term "graffiti" is from the Italian word graffiato ("scratched").

  • Graffiti in the classical world had different connotations than they carry in today's society concerning content, displaying phrases of love declarations, political rhetoric, and simple words of thought.

  • Historic forms of graffiti have helped gain understanding into the lifestyles and languages of past cultures, with errors in spelling and grammar offering insight into the degree of literacy in Roman times.

  • Contemporary graffiti art has its origins with young people in 1970s New York, who used spray paint and other materials to create an image on the sides of buildings and subway trains.

  • Graffiti became associated with the anti-establishment punk rock movement beginning in the 1970s.

  • Style Wars depicted graffiti's role within New York's emerging hip-hop culture in the early 1980s.

  • Some of the first examples of the new stencil graffiti genre were created in 1981 by Blek le Rat in Paris.

  • With the popularity and legitimization of graffiti has come a level of commercialization.

  • Brazil has a particularly rich graffiti scene, with graffiti flourishing in every conceivable space in the country's cities.Overview of Graffiti Art Around the World

  • Graffiti art is prevalent in South America, with Brazil being a prominent country for artists such as Os Gêmeos, Boleta, and Nina.

  • The Middle East has seen a slow emergence of graffiti, with artists like A1one gaining attention for their work in Iran and the Israeli West Bank barrier becoming a site for graffiti art.

  • Graffiti has played a significant role in the street art scene in the Middle East and North Africa, especially following the Arab Spring and Sudanese Revolution.

  • Southeast Asian countries are influenced by modern Western culture for their graffiti art, with Malaysia hosting a street festival to encourage the promotion of street culture.

  • Graffiti artists use various materials such as spray paint and scribing, with spray paint being the most popular medium.

  • Graffiti art has evolved to include new media and technologies, such as projected images and yarnbombing.

  • Tagging is a common practice in graffiti art, with many artists using hashtags.

  • Graffiti is a form of personal expression, with some artists choosing to remain anonymous.

  • Graffiti art has been used for advertising, political expression, and as a tool for resistance.

  • The practices of contemporary graffiti artists vary widely, with some using the medium to politicize other art forms and others using it to efface hate speech.

  • Territorial graffiti marks urban neighborhoods with tags and logos to differentiate certain groups from others.

  • There are examples of graffiti art being used for genocide denial, with war criminals being celebrated and affirmed in the Western Balkans.Graffiti: Offensive, Decorative and High Art, Environmental Effects, and Government Responses

  • Critics accuse Serbia of defending the mural of a convicted war criminal and not reacting to cases of genocide denial, with the Interior Minister's decision to ban any gathering to remove the mural as "tacit endorsement."

  • Offensive graffiti may be difficult to identify, as it is mostly removed quickly by local authorities and is often subtle and not easily recognized as racist unless one knows the relevant "local code."

  • Graffiti has been recognized as high art, displayed in galleries and museums, and even judged of sufficient creative merit to rank them firmly within the arts by Australian art historians.

  • Spray paint has many negative environmental effects, including the release of toxic chemicals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that lead to ground-level ozone formation, estimated to release 4,862 tons of VOCs in the United States in activities related to graffiti.

  • In China, graffiti is generally accepted in Beijing, but political and religiously sensitive graffiti is not allowed.

  • European Parliament directed the European Commission to create urban environment policies to prevent and eliminate dirt, litter, graffiti, animal excrement, and excessive noise from domestic and vehicular music systems in European cities.

  • In the UK, the Anti-Social Behaviour Act 2003 became the latest anti-graffiti legislation, and councils have the power to take action against the owner of any property that has been defaced under certain acts.

  • In Australia, many cities have designated walls or areas exclusively for use by graffitists, and many state governments have banned the sale or possession of spray paint to those under the age of 18.

  • Melbourne is a prominent graffiti city of Australia, with many of its lanes being tourist attractions, and all forms of graffiti can be found in many places throughout the city.

  • Graffiti databases have increased in the past decade because they allow vandalism incidents to be fully documented against an offender and help the police and prosecution charge and prosecute offenders for multiple counts of vandalism.

  • Many restrictions of civil gang injunctions are designed to help address and protect the physical environment and limit graffiti.

  • Some governments have made concessions to graffitists, such as in Taiwan, where they have been allowed to freely display their work along some sections of riverside retaining walls in designated "Graffiti Zones."

  • In Singapore, the 1966 Vandalism Act was originally passed to curb the spread of communist graffiti in Singapore, and under this act, a student was sentenced to four months in jail, a fine of S$3,500, and a caning for vandalizing a car and stealing road signs.Dealing with Graffiti: Hotlines, Rewards, and Search Warrants

  • Injunctions can restrict damaging or vandalizing public and private property.

  • Graffiti abatement hotlines have been set up in many local jurisdictions.

  • San Diego's hotline gets over 5,000 calls per year, and callers can learn about prevention.

  • The response time of hotlines is a concern for many property owners.

  • Local jurisdictions must prioritize cleaning up graffiti to make the hotline effective.

  • Some cities offer rewards for information leading to the arrest and prosecution of vandals.

  • Police search warrants for vandalism investigations can include items such as spray paint cans and etching tools.

  • Evidence of gang or tagging crew affiliation can also be sought in search warrants.

  • Documentaries and dramas have been made about graffiti and its effects.

  • The cost of graffiti removal in the US is estimated to be around $12 billion per year.

  • Graffiti can have negative impacts on property values and community morale.

  • Efforts to prevent graffiti include community involvement and education.

Description

Think you know everything about graffiti? Take this quiz and test your knowledge on the history, styles, and controversies surrounding this popular form of street art. From ancient times to modern-day, explore the evolution of graffiti and its impact on different cultures around the world. Learn about the environmental effects of spray paint, government responses to graffiti, and ways to prevent and remove it. Challenge yourself and see how much you really know about this controversial and often misunderstood art form.

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