Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia Overview

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30 Questions

What are the three types of influenza viruses that cause disease in humans?

Type A, B, and C

What are the two subtypes of influenza viruses?

Hemagglutinin (HA) and Neuroaminidase (NA)

How does influenza A differ in its ability to develop new types compared to other influenza viruses?

Influenza A has the ability to develop new types that the population is not protected against.

How is influenza primarily transmitted?

By aerosol or direct contact

What are the three types of infections caused by influenza viruses?

Uncomplicated upper respiratory infection, Viral pneumonia, Respiratory viral infection followed by bacterial infection

What are some clinical features of influenza?

Abrupt fever, chilling, malaise, muscle aching, headache, watery nasal discharge, nonproductive cough, and sore throat

What is the primary route of spread for Tuberculosis?

Inhaling the mycobacterium-containing droplet nuclei that circulate in the air

What type of immune response is responsible for developing resistance to Tuberculosis?

Cell-mediated immune response

What is the structure that forms when tubercle bacilli, modified macrophages, and other immune cells develop in response to Tuberculosis infection?

Ghon focus

What is the combination of primary lung lesion and lymph node granulomas called?

Ghon complex

What type of cells are responsible for engulfing and degrading M. tuberculosis in the alveoli?

Macrophages

What is the result of the hypersensitivity reaction to a large number of Tuberculosis organisms?

Significant tissue necrosis

What are some common treatments for pneumonia?

Antipyretic and cough medications, Antiviral drugs

How are pneumonias classified based on infectious agents?

According to the source of infection (community versus hospital-acquired) and the immune status of the host

What is the definition of community-acquired pneumonia?

Infection from organisms found in the community, not in the hospital or nursing home, diagnosed within 48 hours of hospital admission

What are some common causes of pneumonia?

Infectious agents such as bacteria and viruses, noninfectious agents such as aspirated gastric secretions

How can pneumonia be prevented from further damaging epithelial cells?

Drinking large amounts of liquid to prevent dehydration

What is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia?

S. pneumoniae

What is the second most common cause of hospital-acquired infections?

Hospital-Acquired pneumonia

Name two examples of hospital organisms associated with hospital-acquired pneumonia.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter species

List four risk factors for hospital-acquired pneumonia.

Mechanical ventilation, airway instrumentation, chronic lung disease, compromised immune function

What are the two classifications of pneumonia based on causative agents?

Typical (Bacterial) and Atypical (Viral and mycoplasma)

What is the causative agent of Tuberculosis?

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Give an example of a condition that falls under Pneumonia in Immunocompromised persons.

Organ transplantation

What is the inflammatory response in the larger airways known as?

Chronic bronchitis

What is the process known as when the inflammatory response causes destruction of the tissues of the lung in the alveoli?

Emphysema

What is the enzyme that protects the lung from injury and can be deficient in inherited cases?

α1-antitrypsin

What is the result of the breakdown of elastin and other alveolar components by the enzyme protease?

Emphysema

What are the two most common causes of chronic bronchitis?

Smoking and viral infection

What is the hallmark of chronic bronchitis in the airways of the lung?

Increased number and size of goblet cells and mucous glands

Explore the key information about Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia, a lower respiratory tract infection that occurs within 48 hours of hospital admission. Learn about common bacteria associated with this condition, high mortality rates, and risk factors such as mechanical ventilation and airway instrumentation.

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