HIV and AIDS Causal Relationship

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Which step in the epidemiological approach involves describing cases in terms of time, place, and person?

Counting

What is the purpose of dividing the number of cases by an appropriate denominator in epidemiology?

To compare rates over time or different groups of people

Which concept in epidemiology involves the calculation of rates based on the number of cases and the appropriate denominator?

Dividing

What is the main focus of establishing a case definition in epidemiology?

Describing and defining cases clearly

Which step in the epidemiological approach involves comparing rates over time or between different groups of people?

Comparing

What does counting cases help with in epidemiology?

Describing cases in detail

What is a common zoonotic disease mentioned in the text?

Anthrax

How do scabies mites typically exit the host's body?

Via skin

What is a mode of transmission where the agent is carried by arthropods but does not undergo changes in the arthropod's body?

Vector transmission

Which part of the body serves as a portal of entry for pathogens?

Respiratory tract

Which disease is caused by a parasite with a complex life cycle and is transmitted by insects?

Malaria

In what way do cholera bacteria typically exit the host's body?

Via faeces

Which term describes the proportion of exposed persons who become infected?

Infectivity

What is the process by which the pattern of mortality and disease is transformed from high mortality among infants to degenerative diseases?

Epidemiologic transition

What is the natural history of a disease?

The progression of a disease process in an individual over time without treatment

Which conditions are listed as the leading causes of death in Jamaica according to the text?

Cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, cancers

What is the purpose of screening programs in relation to disease progression?

To identify disease processes during the sub-clinical stage

Which document outlines the Ten Year Strategic Plan 2019-2030 for Jamaica?

Vision 2030

Which stage of a disease represents when a patient is symptomatic?

Stage of clinical disease

What proportion is defined as the proportion of persons with clinical disease who become severely ill or die?

Virulence

What may halt the progression of a disease according to the text?

Preventive or therapeutic measures

What does the term 'national health goals and strategies' refer to in the text?

National Health Fund

In the natural history of a disease, what does the incubation period refer to?

Sub-clinical stage where no symptoms are present

What is a common aim of screening programs as mentioned in the text?

To identify carriers who will never progress to clinical stage

What is the purpose of a standard case definition in epidemiology?

To ensure all cases are diagnosed in the same manner for comparability

Why are standard case definitions essential in epidemiology?

To ensure a real difference rather than variation in diagnosis

What is a probable case according to the example given for measles cases?

Meets clinical case definition but no confirmed lab testing

Why might some cases be permanently labeled as 'suspect' or 'probable'?

Because officials believe unnecessary testing is wasteful

What is the purpose of a sensitive case definition in epidemiology?

To be used for potentially severe communicable diseases

What components do case definitions for outbreak investigations consist of?

Clinical criteria and limitations on time, place, and person

What differentiates a confirmed case from a probable case according to the example provided?

Confirmed cases have confirmed laboratory results

How do standard case definitions help in comparing disease occurrences?

By ensuring all cases are diagnosed uniformly

What may lead to a case being permanently labeled as 'suspect' or 'probable'?

Officials deeming unnecessary testing wasteful

What is the primary function of a sensitive case definition in epidemiology?

To be used for rare but severe communicable diseases

Explore the causal relationship between HIV and AIDS, and understand how HIV is a necessary cause of AIDS as discussed in the Causal Pie Model. Learn about the natural history of disease and the progression of a disease process over time in individuals without treatment.

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