Hip Anatomy and Movement Quiz

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40 Questions

What type of joint is the hip?

Ball and socket joint

How many degrees of freedom (DOF) does the hip joint have?

3 DOF

What is the angle of inclination formed by the head of the femur in adults?

~125 degrees

What is the diameter of the femoral head?

$4-5$ cm

What is the hip joint's axis of motion for medial and lateral rotations?

Transverse axis; 90-120 degrees of motion

Which muscle group is responsible for hip flexion, abduction, and medial rotation?

Gluteal muscles

Where do the extensor muscles of the hip primarily insert?

Femur

Which statement best describes the location of abductor muscles of the hip?

They generally lie lateral to the sagittal plane.

What type of joint is the knee joint?

$ ext{Hinge joint}$

What provides transverse stability during extension at the knee joint?

Collateral ligaments

How many degrees of freedom (DOF) does the knee joint have?

Two DOF

Which structures are part of the knee joint capsule?

Ligaments, retinacula, bones, muscles, and capsule itself

Which ligament strengthens the articular capsule at the knee joint?

Medial collateral ligament (MCL)

What is the main function of the knee joint?

Enables large range of motion (ROM)

What is the function of the collateral ligaments of the knee?

Stabilize the knee in the antero-posterior direction

Which ligament is attached to the anterior intercondylar area of the tibia?

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)

What type of movement occurs in the transverse plane when the knee is flexed?

Axial rotation

What is the range of flexion for the knee joint?

$120^\text{o}$ to $150^\text{o}$

What are the movements limited by when the knee is fully extended?

Capsular and ligamentous structures

What is the function of menisci in the knee joint?

To correct lack of congruency in articular surfaces

What muscle is embedded in the tendon of quadriceps femoris, increasing its efficiency?

Rectus femoris

What muscle group acts as the extensor muscles of the knee?

The quadriceps femoris

What type of movement occurs when the knee is fully extended with foot on ground?

No rotation occurs

What is the angle of anteversion of the head of the femur?

10-30 degrees

What can increased femoral anteversion lead to?

In-toeing and genu valgum

What is the function of the acetabular labrum?

Deepens the acetabulum

Where does the ligamentum teres of the head of the femur arise from?

Acetabular notch

How is the hip joint capsule described?

A cylindrical sleeve running from the hip bone to the upper end of the femur, strengthened by powerful ligaments anteriorly and posteriorly

What is the function of iliofemoral ligament?

A Y-shaped ligament covering the hip joint anteriorly and superiorly

What characterizes active hip flexion with extended knee?

Limited to 70-90 degrees

What is true about hip abduction?

It is usually accompanied by pelvis elevation

What happens to fibrous layer fibers as the femur rotates relative to acetabulum?

They become increasingly oblique, increasing joint stability.

What is the angle of anteversion of the head of the femur?

10-30 degrees

What can increased femoral anteversion lead to?

In-toeing and genu valgum

What is the function of the acetabular labrum?

To deepen the acetabulum

Where does the ligamentum teres of the head of the femur arise from?

Acetabular notch

What is the shape of the iliofemoral ligament?

Y-shaped

What is the function of pubofemoral ligament?

To limit lateral rotation and abduction

What type of fibers make up the fibrous layer of the hip joint capsule?

Parallel fibers that become increasingly oblique with femur rotation

What axis is used for flexion and extension of the hip in standing position?

A horizontal axis

Study Notes

  • Hip Joint: 1. Degrees of movement for hip abduction, adduction, medial and lateral rotations. 2. Axis of motion and range of motion (ROM) for hip rotations. 3. Flexor muscles of the hip, their location, and functions: produce flexion, abduction, and medial rotation. 4. Extensor muscles of the hip, their location, and functions: inserted into the femur or the vicinity of the knee joint. 5. Abductor muscles of the hip, their location, and functions: generally lie lateral to the sagittal plane. 6. Adductor muscles of the hip, their location, and functions: generally lie medial to the sagittal plane. 7. Rotator muscles of the hip, their functions: lateral rotators and medial rotators.
  • Knee Joint: 1. A complex, synovial modified hinge joint with three bones, two degrees of freedom (DOF), and three articulating surfaces. 2. Functions: withstands large forces, provides great stability, and enables a large ROM. 3. The knee joint capsule comprises passive and active connections among the menisci, ligaments, retinacula, bones, muscles, and the capsule itself. 4. The articular surfaces of the femur and tibia, their functions, and modifications for axial rotation. 5. The complex nature of the knee joint capsule, including the proximal tendon of the popliteus muscle, semimembranosus muscle, oblique popliteal ligament, and arcuate popliteal ligament. 6. The role of collateral ligaments in strengthening the articular capsule and providing transverse stability during extension.

 The head of the femur forms an angle of 10-30 degrees with the femoral plane (angle of anteversion).  Increased femoral anteversion can lead to in-toeing and genu valgum.  Acetabulum is a hemispherical cavity bounded by the acetabular rim, which is deeper and non-articular in the central part.  Acetabular labrum is a fibrocartilaginous ring inserted into the acetabular rim and deepens the acetabulum.  The strong ligamentum teres of the head of the femur arises from the acetabular notch and carries the vascular supply to the femoral head.  The hip joint capsule is a cylindrical sleeve running from the hip bone to the upper end of the femur, strengthened by powerful ligaments anteriorly and posteriorly.  The iliofemoral ligament is a Y-shaped ligament covering the hip joint anteriorly and superiorly, and the pubofemoral ligament is anterior and inferior, limiting lateral rotation and abduction.  The fibrous layer of the hip joint capsule consists of parallel fibers that link the two discs and become increasingly oblique when the femur rotates relative to the acetabulum, increasing the stability of the joint.  In standing, a horizontal axis is used for flexion and extension of the hip, with the common hip axis representing the line connecting the centers of the two femoral heads.  Active hip flexion with the knee extended is limited to 70-90 degrees, while passive hip flexion with the knee extended is less than 90 degrees due to hamstring stretching.  Hip abduction is 45 degrees and is usually accompanied by pelvis elevation, while hip adduction is 0 degrees but is possible up to 30-40 degrees with crossed legs in the standing position.

Test your knowledge of hip anatomy and movement with this quiz. Explore concepts such as hip abduction, adduction, medial and lateral rotation, as well as the flexor muscles of the hip.

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