Heavy Minerals in Sedimentology

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Which of the following is a major component of most igneous rocks, such as granites, andesites, and gabbros, as well as some schists and gneisses?

Feldspar

Which type of feldspar is more common in sandstones compared to plagioclase feldspar?

K-feldspar

What is the role of matrix in sandstones?

It acts as a cement, binding the framework grains together

What is the primary source of quartz in sandstones?

Granite and gneiss rocks

What is the significance of the presence of glauconite in a sandstone?

It indicates a shallow marine environment

How can the composition of sandstones be used to infer the provenance (source) of the sediments?

By analyzing the types of framework grains present

Which of the following is NOT a typical characteristic of green sandstone rich in the mineral glauconite?

Indicates a high sedimentation rate

What is the primary purpose of studying heavy minerals in sedimentary deposits?

To identify the sources of the sediment

Which of the following is the best definition of the matrix in a sandstone?

The silt and clay material deposited with the sand grains

According to the Pettijohn (1975) classification, which type of sandstone is characterized by a dominance of lithic fragments?

Lithic arenite

Which of the following types of rocks is NOT typically found as a lithic fragment in a sandstone deposit?

Biogenic particles (e.g., shell fragments)

Which type of sandstone is characterized by a significant matrix (>15% mud) and is considered a type of greywacke?

Quartz wacke

What is the term used to describe a sedimentary rock composed primarily of silt-sized particles?

Siltstone

Which of the following is a characteristic of shale?

Has a fissility or tendency to split into thin sheets

What is the term used to describe a sandstone with less than 15% matrix material?

Arenite

What is the primary component of loess deposits?

Lithic fragments

Which group of clay minerals is formed in warm, humid environments where acid waters extensively leach bedrock such as granite?

Kaolinite group

What process is responsible for the clumping together of clay particles into larger particles that settle out of suspension at a faster rate?

Flocculation

Explore the characteristics and significance of heavy minerals with density greater than 2.85 g/cc in sedimentology. Learn about their role in provenance interpretation and examples such as Zircon, Tourmaline, Rutile, and Garnet.

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