Org. Theory and Design: Chapter 11 (Matching)

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Match the following stages of organizational life cycle with their descriptions:

Birth = Associated with the greatest chance of failure Growth = Stage of development and expansion Decline = Stage of decreasing effectiveness and productivity Death = Final stage of the organizational life cycle

Match the following characteristics with the stage of organizational birth:

Liability of newness = Dangers associated with being the first to operate in a new environment Fragile organization = Lacks a formal structure for reliability and stability Flexible and responsive structure = Allows for adaptation and continual improvement of routines Hostile environmental conditions = Conditions that may be unfavorable to a new organization

Match the following terms with their definitions:

Entrepreneurs = People who recognize and take advantage of opportunities to create value Organizational birth = Stage associated with the greatest chance of failure Value-creation processes = Processes that give an organization reliability and stability Liability of newness = Dangers associated with being the first to operate in a new environment

Match the following organizational characteristics with their implications:

High failure rate = Due to liability of newness and lack of formal structure Flexibility and responsiveness = Allows for adaptation and continual improvement Fragility of new organizations = Lack of reliability and stability in value-creation processes Hostile environment = Poses dangers to new organizations

Match the following organizational life cycle stages with their variability:

Birth = Different rates of passing through this stage Growth = Varied rates of development and expansion Decline = Different levels of decreasing effectiveness and productivity Death = Varied occurrences in different organizations

Match the following stages with their potential experiences by organizations:

Birth = Some organizations may not experience this stage at all Growth = Some organizations may experience rapid or slow growth Decline = Some organizations may not experience this stage at all Death = Some organizations may not reach this final stage

Match the following strategies with their descriptions:

R-strategy = Early entry into a new environment K-strategy = Late entry into an environment, after other organizations have tested the water Specialist strategy = Concentrating skills to pursue a narrow range of resources in a single niche Generalist strategy = Spreading skills thinly to compete for a broad range of resources in many niches

Match the following isomorphism processes with their descriptions:

Coercive isomorphism = Organizations adopting certain values and norms due to pressure from other organizations or society Mimetic isomorphism = Intentional imitation and copying of successful organizations to increase legitimacy Normative isomorphism = Organizations indirectly adopting the norms and values of other organizations in the environment over time Innovative isomorphism = Developing new norms and values that differentiate organizations from others in the environment

Match the following stages in organizational growth with their descriptions:

Value-creation stage = Developing skills and competences to acquire additional resources Legitimacy stage = Gaining acceptance, reliability, and accountability in the eyes of stakeholders Isomorphism stage = Process by which organizations become more alike or similar over time Innovative stage = Creating new norms and values that differentiate the organization from others in the environment

Match the stages of Greiner's model of organizational growth with their respective crises:

Stage 1: Growth through creativity = Crisis of leadership Stage 2: Growth through direction = Crisis of autonomy Stage 3: Growth through delegation = Crisis of control Stage 4: Growth through coordination = Crisis of red tape

Match the stages of Weitzel and Jonsson's model of organizational decline with their respective conditions:

Stage 1: Blinded = Unable to recognize internal or external forces and problems that threaten long-term survival Stage 2: Inaction = Failure to take prompt action to reverse the decline Stage 3: Faulty action = Taking actions that are not effective in reversing the decline Stage 4: Crisis = Reaching a critical point of decline

Match the factors causing organizational inertia with their descriptions:

Risk aversion = Unwillingness to bear uncertainty associated with entrepreneurial activities Desire to maximize rewards = Managers' focus on strategies that increase organizational size, even if it reduces future profitability and effectiveness Overly bureaucratic culture = Managers limiting the autonomy of their subordinates to protect their positions Environmental changes = Changes affecting an organization's ability to obtain scarce resources

Match the growth stages with their primary characteristics:

Growth through creativity = Developing skills to introduce new products for new market niches Growth through direction = Recruitment of a strong top-management team to lead the organization Growth through delegation = Delegating authority to lower-level managers in all functions and divisions Growth through coordination = Finding the right balance between centralized and decentralized control

Match the key concepts related to organizational effectiveness with their definitions:

Profitability = Measures how well an organization uses its resources to create goods and services sold at profitable prices Organizational inertia = Forces inside an organization that resist change Environmental changes = Changes affecting an organization's ability to obtain scarce resources Effectiveness and profitability = Understanding the difference between making a profit and being profitable

Match the following stages of organizational decline with their descriptions:

Stage 1: Remedial action = Taking immediate action to reverse the decline Stage 2: Inaction = Top managers make little attempt to correct problems despite clear signs of declining performance Stage 3: Faulty action = Managers fail to halt decline and problems continue despite corrective action Stage 4: Crisis = Only radical top-down changes can stop rapid decline and increase chances of survival

Match the following stages of organizational decline with their characteristic features:

Stage 2: Inaction = Failure to correct problems despite clear signs of deteriorating performance Stage 3: Faulty action = Problems continue to multiply despite corrective action Stage 4: Crisis = Organizational strategy and structure need radical changes to stop rapid decline and increase chances of survival Stage 5: Dissolution = Decline becomes irreversible and the organization loses support of stakeholders

Match the following stages of organizational decline with the required actions:

Stage 1: Remedial action = Prompt wide-ranging action by managers is vital to reverse the decline Stage 2: Inaction = Downsizing or scaling back operations may be required to reverse the decline Stage 3: Faulty action = Managers need to overcome inertia and adapt to new conditions in the environment Stage 4: Crisis = Only a new top-management team can turn a company around at this stage

Match the following stages of organizational decline with the consequences:

Stage 2: Inaction = Managers fear that radical change may threaten the way the organization operates and put it at risk Stage 3: Faulty action = Problems continue to multiply despite corrective action and managers fear radical change may threaten the organization Stage 4: Crisis = An organization in this stage has reached a critical point in its history, and only radical changes can stop rapid decline Stage 5: Dissolution = The organization loses support of stakeholders, and its access to resources shrivels as its reputation and markets disappear

Explore Greiner's model of organizational growth, specifically focusing on the first stage of growth through creativity. Understand the challenges and crisis points faced by organizations at this stage.

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