Gilded Age Political Reform Quiz

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32 Questions

What was the main purpose of the Pendleton Act (1883)?

To reform the spoils system and implement the Civil Service System

What was a major issue during Grover Cleveland's presidency?

High tariffs

Who were the 'Mugwumps' in the context of the 1884 election?

Republicans who supported Grover Cleveland

What led to the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)?

Wabash v. Illinois ruling that only the federal government can regulate interstate commerce

What was the main issue in the election of 1888?

Tariff reduction

Who were the Stalwarts in relation to political reform during the Gilded Age?

Supporters of the Spoils System who opposed reform

Who was the only President elected to 2 non-consecutive terms?

Grover Cleveland

Which act made trusts illegal, although courts didn't enforce it effectively?

Sherman Anti-trust Act of 1890

What did the Populist Party try to achieve through its economic reforms?

Graduated income tax

Who won the election of 1896 and signed the Gold Standard Act, declaring a gold-backed money system?

William McKinley

Which group took advantage of Homesteads and organized the Exodusters movement?

Sharecroppers

What was the legal basis for segregation, establishing the 'separate but equal doctrine'?

Plessy v. Ferguson

Who focused on demanding political and social rights immediately as opposed to Booker T. Washington's economic and educational goals?

W.E.B. DuBois

What did the Democrat Grover Cleveland support in terms of tariffs?

Supported lower tariffs

'Exempted uneducated, poor white farmers from voting restrictions' is associated with which clause that perpetuated disenfranchising African Americans?

'Grandfather' clause

What was a major economic crisis that plagued Cleveland’s administration?

Panic of 1893

What was the immediate result of James Garfield's assassination?

Chester A. Arthur implemented the Pendleton Act

Which event led to the creation of the Civil Service System in the United States?

Assassination of James Garfield

What was the primary focus of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) when it was created?

Regulating interstate trade and commerce

What was a major challenge faced by Grover Cleveland during his presidency?

High tariffs on imported goods

Which candidate in the election of 1888 was supported by industrialists and advocated for high tariffs?

Benjamin Harrison

What was the main aim of the Pendleton Act (1883) in relation to government jobs?

To reform the spoils system and create a Civil Service System

Which party attempted to address the needs of farmers who didn't benefit from industrialization?

Populist Party

Who won the electoral vote but not the popular vote in the election of 1888?

Benjamin Harrison

What was the major economic crisis that plagued Grover Cleveland’s administration?

Panic of 1893

Who signed the Gold Standard Act, declaring a gold-backed money system, after winning the election of 1896?

William McKinley

Which act made trusts illegal, although courts didn't effectively enforce it?

Sherman Anti-trust Act

'Exempted uneducated, poor white farmers from voting restrictions' is associated with which clause that perpetuated disenfranchising African Americans?

Grandfather Clause

Who focused on economic and educational goals rather than immediate legal and political rights?

Booker T. Washington

Which party attempted to unite white and black farmers but faced strong racism in the South?

Populist Party

What was the legal basis for segregation, establishing the 'separate but equal doctrine'?

Plessy v. Ferguson

Which group took advantage of Homesteads and organized the Exodusters movement?

Sharecroppers

Study Notes

Pendleton Act and Civil Service Reform

  • Main purpose of the Pendleton Act (1883): to create a civil service system, making government jobs more competitive and merit-based

Grover Cleveland's Presidency

  • Major issue during Cleveland's presidency: economic crisis, specifically the Panic of 1893

Election of 1884

  • The 'Mugwumps' were Republicans who supported Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland, opposed to James G. Blaine's Republican nomination

Creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)

  • Led to the creation of the ICC: abuses by railroads and the need for regulation

Election of 1888

  • Main issue: tariffs, with Republican candidate Benjamin Harrison supporting high tariffs and Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland advocating for lower tariffs

Political Reform during the Gilded Age

  • The Stalwarts: supporters of Roscoe Conkling, opposed to civil service reform

Unique Presidential Feat

  • Only President elected to two non-consecutive terms: Grover Cleveland

Trust Busting

  • Act that made trusts illegal, although courts didn't enforce it effectively: Sherman Anti-Trust Act

Populist Party Goals

  • Main goal of the Populist Party: to achieve economic reforms, specifically to nationalize railroads and establish a graduated income tax

Election of 1896

  • Winner of the election: William McKinley, who signed the Gold Standard Act, declaring a gold-backed money system

Homesteads and Exodusters Movement

  • Group that took advantage of Homesteads and organized the Exodusters movement: African Americans

Legal Basis for Segregation

  • Legal basis for segregation, establishing the 'separate but equal doctrine': Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

Civil Rights Activism

  • Focused on demanding political and social rights immediately: Ida B. Wells, as opposed to Booker T. Washington's economic and educational goals

Tariff Support

  • Democrat Grover Cleveland supported: low tariffs

Voting Restrictions

  • Clause that perpetuated disenfranchising African Americans, exempting uneducated, poor white farmers from voting restrictions: Grandfather Clause

Economic Crisis

  • Major economic crisis that plagued Grover Cleveland's administration: Panic of 1893

Assassination and Consequences

  • Immediate result of James Garfield's assassination: creation of the Civil Service System in the United States

Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)

  • Primary focus of the ICC when created: regulating railroads and protecting consumers

Presidential Challenge

  • Major challenge faced by Grover Cleveland during his presidency: economic crisis

Election of 1888 Candidates

  • Candidate supported by industrialists and advocating for high tariffs: Benjamin Harrison

Government Jobs

  • Main aim of the Pendleton Act (1883): making government jobs more competitive and merit-based

Farmers' Needs

  • Party that attempted to address the needs of farmers who didn't benefit from industrialization: Populist Party

Election of 1888 Outcome

  • Winner of the electoral vote but not the popular vote: Benjamin Harrison

Economic Crisis (Again)

  • Major economic crisis that plagued Grover Cleveland’s administration: Panic of 1893

Gold Standard Act

  • Signed the Gold Standard Act, declaring a gold-backed money system: William McKinley

Trust Busting (Again)

  • Act that made trusts illegal, although courts didn't effectively enforce it: Sherman Anti-Trust Act

Voting Restrictions (Again)

  • Clause that perpetuated disenfranchising African Americans, exempting uneducated, poor white farmers from voting restrictions: Grandfather Clause

Economic and Educational Goals

  • Focused on economic and educational goals rather than immediate legal and political rights: Booker T. Washington

Uniting Farmers

  • Party that attempted to unite white and black farmers but faced strong racism in the South: Populist Party

Legal Basis for Segregation (Again)

  • Legal basis for segregation, establishing the 'separate but equal doctrine': Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

Homesteads and Exodusters (Again)

  • Group that took advantage of Homesteads and organized the Exodusters movement: African Americans

Test your knowledge on the political reform movements during the Gilded Age, including the Spoils System, Stalwarts, the presidency of James Garfield, and the passage of the Pendleton Act.

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