## 17 Questions

What property of a fluid does the Bernoulli Equation relate to?

Velocity and pressure

How does severe arterial stenosis affect blood flow according to the text?

It prevents sufficient blood flow due to high pressure.

What phenomenon does the Reynolds Number help predict in fluid mechanics?

Turbulent flow

Why does an increase in fluid velocity result in a decrease in pressure, according to the Bernoulli Equation?

To conserve energy within the fluid.

How does the Venturi Effect explain pressure changes in a constricted pipe?

Pressure decreases as fluid velocity increases due to conservation of momentum.

According to the Bernoulli equation, what happens to the pressure when the flow velocity increases?

The pressure decreases

What phenomenon is observed in a Venturi tube, which is based on the Bernoulli principle?

The flow velocity increases as the cross-sectional area decreases, causing a pressure drop

In the context of microfluidic systems, which application of the Bernoulli principle is discussed?

Arterial stenosis (narrowing of arteries)

Who is credited with formulating the theoretical basis for the Bernoulli equation?

Daniel Bernoulli

What is the primary factor that causes the aerodynamic lift on an aircraft wing, according to the Bernoulli principle?

The difference in air pressure between the upper and lower surfaces of the wing

What is the relationship between flow velocity and pressure, as described by the Bernoulli equation, assuming other factors remain constant?

Flow velocity and pressure are inversely proportional

What condition must be satisfied for the Bernoulli equation to be valid?

The flow must be steady, incompressible, and inviscid.

What principle is responsible for the phenomenon of aerodynamic lift?

The Bernoulli principle

In the context of microfluidic systems, what does the term 'laminar flow' refer to?

Flow with a low Reynolds number and smooth, parallel streamlines

According to the Bernoulli equation, what happens to the pressure when the velocity of a fluid increases?

The pressure varies inversely with the square of the velocity.

Who is credited with the formulation of the Bernoulli equation?

Daniel Bernoulli

What is the Venturi effect, and how is it related to the Bernoulli equation?

The Venturi effect describes the decrease in pressure as a fluid flows through a constriction, and it is a direct consequence of the Bernoulli equation.

## Study Notes

### Fluid Mechanics

- At severe arterial stenosis, the pressure drop is too high, resulting in not enough blood flowing through.
- Mild stenosis: pressure drop is moderate.
- Severe stenosis: pressure drop is very high.

### Bernoulli Equation

- The equation relates the pressure of a fluid to its velocity: v² + p/ρ = const.
- Applies to steady-state and laminar flow.
- States that the sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy of a fluid is constant.

### Aerodynamic Lift

- The shape of an airfoil is designed such that the air velocity above is faster than the velocity below.
- This results in less pressure above than below the airfoil, creating a lift (force).

### Reynolds Number (Re)

- Developed by Osborne Reynolds (1842-1912).
- Measures the nature of fluid flow (laminar or turbulent).

### Venturi Effect

- High flow velocity corresponds to low pressure, and high pressure corresponds to low flow velocity.
- Experimentally demonstrated by Giovanni Battista Venturi (1746-1822).

### Euler Equation

- A mathematical equation describing fluid flow in the absence of friction (laminar flow).
- Relates the velocity of a fluid to its pressure and density.

Test your knowledge on fluid mechanics, specifically focusing on the Bernoulli equation, Euler equation, Venturi effect, and microfluidic systems. Explore concepts related to steady-state, laminar flow, flow velocity, and pressure in this quiz.

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