19 Questions
Match the following research methods with their primary purpose:
Qualitative Research = Exploratory and used when uncertain about the problem Quantitative Research = Conclusive and aims to quantify the problem Exploratory Research = Focuses on defining the problem and developing an approach Conclusive Research = Seeks projectable results to a larger population
Match the following data collection methods with the type of research they are commonly associated with:
Focus Groups, In-depth Interviews = Qualitative Research Surveys, Audits = Quantitative Research Uninterrupted Observation, Ethnographic Participation = Qualitative Research Points of Purchase Data, Trend Data = Quantitative Research
Match the following statements with the correct term:
Formally stated question intended to provide indications about an issue = Research Question Formal statement regarding the relationship between variables = Hypothesis Used when uncertain about the nature of the problem under investigation = Research Question Tested directly in research to explore relationships between variables = Hypothesis
Match the following terms with their definitions:
Probability Sampling = A sampling technique in which every member of the population has a known, nonzero probability of selection. Nonprobability Sampling = A sampling technique in which units of the sample are selected on the basis of personal judgment or convenience. Descriptive Data Analysis = Involves the exploration, summary, and presentation of data to understand its key characteristics. Variable Types = Independent variables are systematically varied by the researcher; Dependent variables are observed.
Match the following statistical measures with their descriptions:
Mean = Calculates the average value of a dataset. Variance = Measures how spread out the values in a dataset are from the mean. Percentiles = Divides a dataset into 100 equal parts, indicating the percentage of observations below a certain value. Standard Deviation = Quantifies the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of values.
Match the following terms with their characteristics:
Reliability vs. Validity = Reliability refers to consistency; Validity refers to accuracy. Both Valid and Reliable = Results are accurate and consistent. Not Valid but Reliable = Results are consistent but not accurate. Not Reliable but Valid = Results are accurate but not consistent.
Match the following visualization techniques with their purpose:
Charts, Graphs, Histograms, Box Plots = Visual representations aid in understanding patterns, trends, and relationships in the data. Scatter Plots = Used to show relationships between two variables through individual data points.
Match the following statistical concepts with their definitions:
Significance Level = A critical probability associated with a statistical hypothesis test p-value = Probability value, or the observed or computed significance level Inferential Statistics = Provide environments for testing difference and relationship between variables Hypothesis Testing Procedure = Process of deriving specifically stated hypothesis from research objectives
Match the following types of statistical analysis with their descriptions:
Univariate Statistical Analysis = Tests hypotheses involving only one variable Bivariate Statistical Analysis = Tests hypotheses involving two variables Multivariate Statistical Analysis = Involves analysis of three or more variables or sets of variables Interpretation = Process of drawing inferences from analysis results
Match the following terms with their meanings:
Test for Difference = Examining if a significant difference exists between groups Tests for Relationship = Analyzing for a significant relationship between dependent and independent variables Hypothesis Testing Using Basic Statistics = Using statistical tests to evaluate hypotheses based on data Managerial Implications = Implications and decisions drawn from analysis results
Match the following with their definition:
Discrete Variable = Includes a finite set of values Continuous Variable = Takes on any value on a continuous scale Mode = The value that occurs most often in a distribution Median = The midpoint of the distribution
Match the following with their characteristics:
Mean = Arithmetic average Median = Provides the middle value when numbers are arranged in order Mode = Characterizes the entire distribution with a single number Normal Distribution = Distribution where 68%, 95%, and 99% fall within specific ranges
Match the following with their calculation method:
Mode Example = Find the score that occurs most frequently Median Example (Odd Number) = Arrange in descending order and find the midpoint Median Example (Even Number) = Arrange in descending order and find the average of two middle values Skewness = Refers to the concentration of scores around a particular point on the x-axis
Match the following with their representation:
Frequency Polygon = Graph representing frequency distribution of test scores Central Tendency Statistics = Provide information about the grouping of numbers in a distribution Measures of Central Tendency = Identify characteristic numbers like mode, median, and mean for a distribution Variable Forms = Categorize variables as discrete or continuous based on their values
Match the following with their purpose:
Mode = Identifying the most frequent value in a dataset Median = Providing a robust measure of central tendency for skewed distributions Mean = Calculating an average value for a set of data points Central Tendency Statistics = Summarizing the center or average of a dataset
Match the following with their percentage relevance in a Normal Distribution:
68% = Scores falling within one standard deviation from the mean 95% = Scores falling within two standard deviations from the mean 99% = Scores falling within three standard deviations from the mean Skewness = Refers to how symmetrical or skewed a distribution is
Match the following terms with their corresponding definitions:
Null Hypothesis (H0) = States there is no significant difference/relationship between groups Alternative Hypothesis (Ha) = States there is a significant difference/relationship between groups Significance Level = A critical probability indicating how likely an inference supporting a difference is true p-value = Probability value or observed significance level compared to significance levels
Match the following steps in hypothesis testing with their descriptions:
Obtaining a sample and measuring the variable = First step in hypothesis testing procedure Comparing the measured sample value with hypothesis value = Determining if hypothesis is supported or not supported Stating hypotheses in Null form = Always stating the research hypotheses in a specific way Testing an educated guess = Object of experimental research to either reject or accept hypotheses
Match the following outcomes with their implications in hypothesis testing:
Consistent sample value with hypothesis = Supports the hypothesis Inconsistent sample value with hypothesis = Does not support the hypothesis Significance Level as Type I error probability = Acceptable level for hypothesis testing Comparing p-values and significance levels = Testing hypotheses using computed significance levels
Study Notes
Flow Chart of the Scientific Method
- The scientific method involves a flow chart with diamond-shaped boxes indicating stages where a choice of techniques must be made, and a dotted line indicating an alternative path that skips exploratory research.
Types of Research
- Qualitative Research: used to explore and define problems, develop an approach, and gather nuanced information; involves words, not numbers; common data collection methods include focus groups, in-depth interviews, and ethnographic participation/observation.
- Quantitative Research: used to quantify problems and understand prevalence; involves numbers; data collection methods include surveys, audits, and trend data.
Research Question and Hypothesis
- Research Question: a formally stated question to provide indications about a problem; used when the researcher is unsure about the problem's nature.
- Hypothesis: a formal statement regarding the relationship between variables; tested directly to determine validity.
Sampling Techniques
- Probability Sampling: every member of the population has a known, nonzero probability of selection.
- Nonprobability Sampling: units of the sample are selected based on personal judgment or convenience; the probability of any particular member being chosen is unknown.
Descriptive Data Analysis
- Summary Statistics: calculate and examine statistics such as mean, median, mode, standard deviation, and variance to describe data characteristics.
- Data Visualization: create visual representations of data using charts, graphs, and plots to understand patterns and trends.
Types and Forms of Variables
- Independent Variable: systematically varied by the researcher.
- Dependent Variable: observed and affected by the independent variable.
- Variable Forms: discrete (finite set of values) and continuous (any value on a continuous scale).
Hypothesis Testing
- Significance Level: a critical probability associated with a statistical hypothesis test; indicates the likelihood of an inference supporting a difference between an observed value and some statistical expectation.
- p-value: the probability value or observed significance level; compared to significance levels to test hypotheses.
Interpretation and Inferential Statistics
- Interpretation: the process of drawing inferences from analysis results; leads to managerial implications and decisions.
- Inferential Statistics: provides two environments: test for difference and tests for relationship.
Central Tendency
- Mean: the arithmetic average; calculates the typical score.
- Median: the midpoint of the distribution; calculates the typical score.
- Mode: the value that occurs most frequently; calculates the typical score.
Normal Distribution
- 68%: 68% of scores fall within 1 standard deviation of the mean.
- 95%: 95% of scores fall within 2 standard deviations of the mean.
- 99%: 99% of scores fall within 3 standard deviations of the mean.
Hypothesis Testing Procedure
- H0 (Null Hypothesis): "there is no significant difference/relationship between groups."
- Ha (Alternative Hypothesis): "there is a significant difference/relationship between groups."
- Hypothesis Testing: involves testing a hypothesis to either reject or accept the null hypothesis.
Test your knowledge on the flow chart of the scientific method, focusing on the different stages and decision points in the research process. Understand the use of diamond-shaped boxes, dotted lines, and the two basic types of research - Qualitative Research and exploratory research.
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