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Flagellates: Intestinal and Extraintestinal Species

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41 Questions

Giardia intestinalis is ______ in shape.

pear

Chilomastix mesnili has a ______ shaped body.

pear

Dientamoeba fragilis has ______ pseudopodia.

broad hyaline

Trichomonas hominis has a ______ membrane that extends to its full body length.

undulating

Enteromonas hominis moves with ______ motion.

jerky

The undulating membrane in Trichomonas tenax extends ______ of the body length.

two thirds

The cytoplasm of Trichomonas tenax has ______-filled vacuoles.

bacteria

Trichomonas vaginalis is an ______-shaped parasite.

ovoid

The mature cyst of Giardia intestinalis has ______ nuclei.

four

Chilomastix mesnili has a ______ knob extending from the anterior end.

hyaline

The disease associated with Giardia intestinalis is ______ and traveler's diarrhea.

Giardiasis

Dientamoeba fragilis is responsible for ______ infection, which is symptomatic.

Dientamoeba fragilis

Trichomonas hominis is a nonpathogen and does not cause ______.

disease

Metronidazole is used to treat ______ infections, but it is not approved for this use.

Trichomonas vaginalis

The diagnostic stage of Trichomonas vaginalis involves the presence of ______ in the vagina or orifice of urethra.

trophozoite

What is the diagnostic stage of Trichomonas vaginalis?

Trophozoite

Which of the following is indicated for the treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis infection?

Metronidazole (Flagyl)

What is the shape of Chilomastix mesnili?

Pear-shaped

What is the primary mode of transmission of Retortamonas intestinalis?

Hypothetical transmission via Enterobius egg

What is the disease associated with Dientamoeba fragilis?

Dientamoeba fragilis infection

What is the primary treatment for Giardiasis?

Metronidazole (Flagyl)

What is the characteristic of the trophozoite of Trichomonas tenax?

It has an undulating membrane

What is the primary way to diagnose Retortamonas intestinalis?

By the presence of both cysts and trophozoites

What is the characteristic of the cysts of Giardia intestinalis?

all of the avoce

What is the shape of Trichomonas tenax?

a and b

How many nuclei does Giardia intestinalis have in its immature cyst stage?

Two

What is unique about the movement of Trichomonas vaginalis?

Rapid and jerky

What is the characteristic feature of the cyst of Giardia intestinalis?

all of the aboce

What is the shape of the cyst Chilomastix mesnili?

Lemon-shaped

How many nuclei does Trichomonas tenax have?

One

What is the characteristic feature of the cytoplasm of Trichomonas tenax?

Bacteria-filled vacuoles

How many nuclei does Giardia intestinalis have in its mature cyst stage?

Four

What is the characteristic shape of Giardia intestinalis?

Pear-shape

How many pairs of flagella does Giardia intestinalis have?

Four

What is the distinctive feature of Chilomastix mesnili's movement?

Stiff and rotary

What is the number of chromatin granules in Dientamoeba fragilis?

Four to eight

What is the shape of Trichomonas hominis' body?

Pear-shaped

How many anterior flagella does Trichomonas hominis have?

Three to five

What is the shape of Enteromonas hominis' body?

a and b

How many flagella does Enteromonas hominis have in total?

Four

What is the characteristic feature of Retortamonas intestinalis' movement?

Jerky

Study Notes

Giardia intestinalis

  • Size: 8-20 μm long, 5-16 μm wide
  • Shape: Pear-shape, teardrop, or falling leaf
  • Motility: Falling leaf
  • Nuclei: Two ovoid-shaped, each with a large karyosome
  • Flagella: Four pairs, originating from anterior and posterior ends, and central extending laterally
  • Other structures: Two median bodies, two axonemes, sucking disk, and four flagella (three extending from anterior end, one extending posteriorly from cytostome region)
  • Appearance: Bilaterally symmetrical

Chilomastix mesnili

  • Size: 5-25 μm long, 5-10 μm wide
  • Shape: Pear-shaped
  • Motility: Stiff, rotary, directional
  • Nuclei: One with small central or eccentric karyosome
  • Other structures: Prominent cytostome extending 1/3 to 1/2 body length, spiral groove, and no peripheral chromatin

Dientamoeba fragilis

  • Size: 5-18 μm
  • Shape: Irregularly round
  • Motility: Progressive, broad hyaline pseudopodia
  • Nuclei: Two, each consisting of massed clumps of four to eight chromatin granules
  • Other structures: No peripheral chromatin

Trichomonas hominis

  • Size: 7-20 μm long, 5-18 μm wide
  • Shape: Pear-shaped
  • Motility: Nervous, jerky
  • Nuclei: One with small central karyosome
  • Other structures: Three to five anterior flagella, one posterior extending from the posterior end of the undulating membrane, axostyle extending beyond the posterior, full body length undulating membrane, and conical cytostome cleft in anterior region

Enteromonas hominis

  • Size: 3-10 μm long, 3-7 μm wide
  • Shape: Oval; sometimes half-circle
  • Motility: Jerky
  • Nuclei: One with central karyosome
  • Other structures: Four total flagella, three directed anteriorly, one directed posteriorly, and no peripheral chromatin

Retortamonas intestinalis

  • Size: 3-7 μm long, 5-6 μm wide
  • Shape: Ovoid
  • Motility: Jerky
  • Nuclei: One with small central karyosome
  • Other structures: Ring of chromatin granules may be on nuclear membrane, two anterior flagella, and cytostome extending halfway down body length with well-defined fibril border

Trichomonas tenax

  • Size: 5-14 μm long
  • Shape: Oval, pear-shaped
  • Motility: Nervous, jerky
  • Nuclei: One ovoid nucleus; consists of vesicular region filled with chromatin granules
  • Other structures: Five total flagella, all originating anteriorly, undulating membrane extending two thirds of body length with accompanying costa, thick axostyle curves around, and extends beyond body length, and bacteria-filled vacuoles common in cytoplasm

Trichomonas vaginalis

  • Size: Up to 30 μm long
  • Shape: Ovoid, round or pear-shaped
  • Motility: Rapid, jerky
  • Nuclei: One ovoid, nondescript
  • Other structures: Three to five anterior flagella, one posterior, undulating membrane extending half of body length, prominent axostyle that often curves and around, and granules may be seen along axostyle

Cyst Characteristics

  • Giardia intestinalis: 8-17 μm long, 6-10 μm wide, ovoid shape, immature cyst with two nuclei, mature cyst with four nuclei, central karyosomes, no peripheral chromatin, median bodies, and interior flagellar structures
  • Chilomastix mesnili: 5- μm long, lemon-shaped, with a clear hyaline knob extending from the anterior end, one nucleus with large central karyosome, no peripheral chromatin

Flagellates

  • Intestinal: Giardia intestinalis, Chilomastix mesnili, Dientamoeba fragilis, Trichomonas hominis, Enteromonas hominis, Retortamonas intestinalis
  • Extraintestinal: Trichomonas vaginalis
  • Common associated diseases: Giardia intestinalis - Giardiasis, traveler’s diarrhea; Chilomastix mesnili - None; Dientamoeba fragilis - Dientamoeba fragilis infection; Trichomonas hominis - None; Enteromonas hominis - None; Retortamonas intestinalis - IS: Cysts, DS: Cysts and trophozoites; Trichomonas vaginalis - Persistent urethritis, persistent vaginitis, infant Trichomonas vaginalis infection

Test your knowledge of flagellates, including Giardia intestinalis, Chilomastix mesnili, Dientamoeba fragilis, Trichomonas hominis, and Retortamonas intestinalis, and their associated diseases and characteristics.

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