Fixed Oils and Fats: Plant vs Animal Origin Quiz

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18 Questions

What effect does the presence of double bonds have on the melting point of fatty acids?

Lowers the melting point

Which type of fatty acid has no C-C double bonds?

Saturated Fatty Acids

What property of unsaturated fatty acids makes them important in the film industry?

Ability to form hard films

Which type of fatty acid tends to be liquid at physiological temperature if containing less than eight carbon atoms?

Saturated Fatty Acids

Which of the following is an example of a saturated fatty acid?

Lauric Acid

What is the process by which double bonds in unsaturated fatty acids take up hydrogen to produce semi-solid fats?

Hydrogenation

Which method of extraction is used to obtain Virgin/Cold Pressed Oil?

Expression in hydraulic presses

Which of the following oils is classified as a saturated fixed oil?

Coconut Oil

Among the options, which is an example of a polyunsaturated fixed oil?

Sunflower Oil

Which of the following is an example of a fat or related compound?

Lanolin

Which of these is an example of a solid vegetable oil?

Cocoa Butter

What are waxes primarily composed of?

Esters resulting from the condensation of high molecular weight acids and alcohols

What is the primary function of fixed oils and fats obtained from plants and animals?

Used for food (energy) storage

Which of the following is a chief difference between fixed oils/fats and waxes?

Fixed oils/fats are esters of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols, while waxes are high molecular weight alcohols combined with fatty acids.

According to USP tests for fatty acids, what is a characteristic test for unsaturation?

Iodine value

Which of the following is an example of a fixed oil obtained from a plant source?

Peanut oil

In the classification of fixed oils and fats, what type of alcohol combines with fatty acids?

Glycerol

Which of the following is an example of a wax due to its high molecular weight alcohol content?

Cetyl alcohol

Study Notes

Waxes

  • Beeswax: CH3(CH2)14CO2-(CH2)15CH3
  • Carnauba wax: CH3(CH2)24CO2-(CH2)29CH3
  • Spermaceti: CH3(CH2)30CO2-(CH2)33CH3
  • Uses: hardens ointments and creams, preparation of cerates, protective coatings in industry and art

Sources of Waxes

  • Plants: Carnauba wax, Bayberry wax
  • Insects: Beeswax, Lacwax
  • Other Animals: Spermaceti

Fatty Acids

  • Saturated Fatty Acids: no C-C double bonds
  • Unsaturated Fatty Acids: with double bonds
  • Lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid

Fixed Oils and Fats

  • Vegetable Oils: mostly liquid at ordinary temperature, except cocoa butter
  • Animal Fats: mostly solid, except cod liver oil
  • Obtained by expression in hydraulic presses: cold or hot pressed, sometimes with organic solvents
  • Classification: saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated

Classification of Fixed Oils and Fats

Saturated

  • Coconut Oil
  • Palm Oil
  • Palm Kernel Oil

Monounsaturated

  • Castor Oil
  • Olive Oil
  • Peanut Oil
  • Rapeseed Oil

Polyunsaturated

  • Almond Oil
  • Corn Oil
  • Cottonseed Oil
  • Cod Liver Oil
  • Linseed Oil
  • Persic Oil
  • Soybean Oil
  • Sesame Oil
  • Safflower Oil
  • Sunflower Oil

Fats and Related Compounds

  • Theobroma Oil (Cacao Butter/Cocoa Butter)
  • Lanolin (Hydrous Woolfat)
  • Anhydrous Lanolin (Woolfat)
  • Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils
  • Lard

Test your knowledge on the differences between fixed oils and fats of plant and animal origin. Learn about the properties of vegetable oils and animal fats, including which ones are solid or liquid at ordinary temperatures. Explore the extraction methods for fixed oils and fats from vegetative sources.

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