Lecture 2

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What type of explanation focuses on the physiological aspects of behavior?

Causation

Which factor is NOT considered when looking at ultimate factors in behavior?

Development/Ontogeny

What does the unfused skull sutures at birth in humans and other mammals aim to solve?

To navigate through the birth canal

Which of the following is a proximate factor related to play behavior in animals?

Learning and genetic disposition

What effect does decortication have on play behavior in animals?

Decreases play behavior

What is the main reason for choosing measurable units in the study of play behavior?

To increase the likelihood of achieving high intra- and inter-observer reliability

How do nape contacts relate to the playfulness of decorticate rats?

Nape contacts show that decorticates are less playful than intact rats

What is the effect of decortication on the likelihood of achieving the pin configuration in play fighting?

Decorticates have similar pin configuration probabilities as intact rats

Why should scoring pins in play fighting be done with caution?

Pins can be misleading if the underlying tactics used are not considered

What does the absence of the cortex in rats reveal about their motivation for play?

Rats lacking a cortex prefer different tactics in playful wrestling

What is the key difference between proximate and ultimate explanations?

Proximate explanations focus on the immediate causes of a behavior, while ultimate explanations focus on the evolutionary reasons behind it

How does play fighting in rats differ from serious fighting based on the text?

Play fighting targets the lower body, while serious fighting targets the nape of the neck

Based on the information provided, how is the organization of play fighting in rats modified?

Play fighting involves biting the lower body more than other body parts

How does decortication affect play behavior in rats?

Decortication leads to a decrease in play behavior

What does the text imply about measuring play behavior in relation to ultimate and proximate explanations?

Proximate and ultimate explanations are equally important when measuring play behavior

What aspect of behavior does the ontogeny refer to in Tinbergen's 4 Whys framework?

Development over the lifetime of an individual

In the context of Ernst Mayr's work, what specifically do proximate causes refer to?

Biological features that produce behavior

How is the concept of ultimate causes best described in the context of Tinbergen's 4 Whys framework?

Consequences of biological features for survival and reproduction

When considering play behavior, which aspect would be most relevant to a proximate explanation?

The neural, physiological, and psychological processes involved in play behavior

Decortication refers to the removal of the cerebral cortex. How would this procedure most likely affect play behavior based on the content provided?

Suppress play behavior due to lack of cortical regulation

Test your knowledge on the proximate and ultimate factors influencing evolution such as physiological explanations, sensory/nervous systems, adaptive advantage, reproductive success, and more.

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