# Experiment Design and Control Variables Quiz

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## 30 Questions

### What does the null hypothesis indicate?

Absence of a relationship between variables

### Which hypothesis is the positive form of the null hypothesis?

Alternative hypothesis

### In a directional hypothesis, what does a positive relationship mean?

Value of one variable increases with increase in another

### What type of statement is a non-directional hypothesis?

Statement stating no relationship exists between variables

Null hypothesis

### When would you use a directional hypothesis?

To predict an expected direction of relationship or difference

### What type of research method should a researcher use if interested in describing in detail the language performance in particular grammatical forms of an individual?

Descriptive approach

### Which research method is the only design that can truly test hypothesis concerning cause-effect relationships?

Experimental approach

### What does the text claim about the nature of experimental research?

It must always be analytic

### When a researcher is interested in probing deeply into the different factors that motivate a group of second language learners, which approach should be used?

Descriptive approach

### What makes the experimental method more rigorous, intensive, and exacting compared to other research methods?

It involves analyzing variable factors

### Which research method can serve as bases for drawing essential universal conclusions about language acquisition and learning?

Descriptive methods

Random sampling

### Which sampling technique involves setting specific criteria for selecting respondents?

Purposive sampling

### What is stratified sampling primarily focused on?

Getting a proportional number to represent specific groups

### When is no sampling required in a study?

When big numbers are involved

### How is the size of the sample commonly determined?

Through Slovin's Formula

### What is the purpose of describing the instruments used in data collection?

To detail how data was collected

### What is the purpose of control in experimental research?

To eliminate the influence of variables other than the independent variable

### In an experimental research setting, what distinguishes the experimental group from the control group?

The experimental group receives treatment, while the control group does not.

### Why is it important for researchers to control variables in experimental research?

To ensure accurate measurement of the effect of the independent variable

### What distinguishes between an experiment and a quasi-experiment?

The formation of groups for the experiment

### Which group is given lessons/strategies in an experimental research setting?

The experimental group

### What is the main role of the researcher in determining the treatment for each group in an experimental study?

To decide which group gets which treatment

### What distinguishes structured observations from unstructured observations?

Structured observations involve pre-determined data, while unstructured observations do not.

### Why does Long (1980) suggest using varied ways of observational procedures?

To provide a more complete understanding of what happens in the language classroom setting.

### Why might audio recordings be insufficient in capturing verbal interactions?

They may not accurately capture the vocal aspect of the verbal interaction.

### How are data obtained in structured observations?

Following a pre-determined checklist.

### What is the drawback of solely relying on taking notes during observations?

Missing out on recording everything with accuracy.

### Why are video tapes considered more elaborate than audio tapes in capturing events?

Because they offer a comprehensive picture of the events taking place.

## Study Notes

### Hypotheses

• The null hypothesis indicates no significant difference or relationship between variables.
• The alternative hypothesis is the positive form of the null hypothesis.
• In a directional hypothesis, a positive relationship means that one variable increases or decreases as the other variable increases.
• A non-directional hypothesis is a statement that predicts a difference or relationship between variables, but does not specify the direction.

### Research Methods

• Case studies are used to describe in detail the language performance of an individual.
• Experimental research is the only design that can truly test hypotheses concerning cause-effect relationships.
• The text claims that experimental research is a rigorous, intensive, and exacting method that can isolate the effects of a single variable.
• Qualitative research is used to probe deeply into the factors that motivate a group of second language learners.

### Experimental Research

• The experimental method is more rigorous, intensive, and exacting compared to other research methods because it involves controlling variables and manipulating the independent variable.
• The experimental group is distinguished from the control group by the fact that the experimental group receives the treatment or intervention.
• The purpose of control in experimental research is to ensure that the results are due to the independent variable and not to other extraneous factors.
• The researcher determines the treatment for each group in an experimental study.

### Sampling

• Systematic sampling involves using odd numbers in the list of students.
• Purposive sampling involves setting specific criteria for selecting respondents.
• Stratified sampling is primarily focused on ensuring that the sample is representative of the population.
• No sampling is required in a study when the entire population is being studied.
• The size of the sample is commonly determined by the availability of resources and the desired level of precision.

### Data Collection

• The purpose of describing the instruments used in data collection is to ensure that the data is reliable and valid.
• Data is obtained in structured observations through the use of predetermined categories and scales.
• The drawback of solely relying on taking notes during observations is that important details may be missed.
• Video tapes are considered more elaborate than audio tapes in capturing events because they provide a visual record of the behavior.

### Observations

• Structured observations are distinguished from unstructured observations by the use of predetermined categories and scales.
• Long (1980) suggests using varied ways of observational procedures to increase the validity of the data.
• Audio recordings may be insufficient in capturing verbal interactions because they do not provide a visual record of the behavior.

Test your knowledge on experiment design, control variables, and manipulation of independent variables in research. Explore how researchers ensure both internal and external validity in experiments. Example scenario includes the effect of MI-based instruction on language achievement.

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