Evolutionary Biology: From Darwin to Watson and Crick

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18 Questions

What is the term for the directed migration of cells in response to concentration gradients of extracellular signals?

Chemotaxis

Which mechanism is used by bacteria to remove viral DNA from circular chromosomes?

CRISPR

What are oncogenes?

Virus-derived genes that can cause cancer

How do rattlesnakes use chemical cues to track down prey at night?

By utilizing chemotaxis

What is Pangenesis?

Hypothesis suggesting particles from all parts of the body can collect in the reproductive organs to pass on hereditary information

What is the main characteristic of retroviruses?

Incorporation of genes into the host's chromosomes

What is the main source of variation in traits?

Mutation

Who discovered that some traits are dominant and some are recessive?

Gregor Mendel

Which scientist confirmed that genes are made of DNA and proposed the double helix model?

James Watson and Francis Crick

What concept solves Darwin's problem of how heritable particles do not blend?

Pangenesis

According to the Modern Synthesis, what does natural selection act upon?

'Fitter' phenotypes

What is the process whereby distantly related organisms independently evolve similar traits to adapt to similar necessities called?

Convergence

Which process is responsible for the spread of antibiotic resistance genes among bacteria?

Conjugation in bacteria

What is a significant outcome of serial symbiosis between prokaryotes according to the text?

Creation of more complicated eukaryotic cells

Which event led to the creation of mitochondria and chloroplasts in eukaryotic cells?

Endosymbiosis with bacteria

What is a key characteristic of the transfer of genes through sexual reproduction?

Involves sharing chromosomes with another organism

What process involves the direct contact transfer of DNA from a donor bacterium to a recipient bacterium?

Conjugation in bacteria

How do viruses replicate within host cells?

Utilizing cellular mechanisms of the host cell

Explore the evolution of scientific thought from Darwin's theory of natural selection to the discovery of DNA by Watson and Crick. Learn about the contributions of Mendel, the concept of genes, and the modern synthesis that combines natural selection with genetics.

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