Ethical Concerns in Procreation and Cloning

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How can PGD determine the gender of embryos?

By identifying sex chromosomes (XX for female, XY for male).

What do critics of sex selection focus on?

Critics focus on potential harms of sex selection, questioning its impact on reproductive freedom.

What ethical concerns does Kass raise about cloning?

Kass warns of the potential for parents to exert excessive control over cloned children, leading to ethical dilemmas and altering the parent-child relationship.

What is the purpose of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)?

ICSI is an option for fertilization during In Vitro Fertilization (IVF).

How is the sex of an embryo determined during Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGT)?

The sex of an embryo is determined by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome.

What concerns are raised about sex selection impacting women?

Some argue sex selection is sexist, valuing one sex over the other, impacting women's well-being.

What is the main difference between In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)?

IVF involves fertilizing an egg with sperm outside the body in a laboratory dish, while ICSI involves injecting a single sperm directly into an egg to facilitate fertilization.

Explain the process of Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT) and how it differs from Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT).

GIFT transfers eggs and sperm into the fallopian tubes for natural fertilization, whereas ZIFT transfers the fertilized egg (zygote) to the fallopian tubes after initial laboratory fertilization.

What is the purpose of Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGT)?

To screen embryos for genetic abnormalities before implantation in the uterus

What is the role of a surrogate mother in the process of surrogacy?

A surrogate mother carries and delivers a child for another individual or couple.

Explain the process of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI).

ICSI involves injecting a single sperm directly into an egg to facilitate fertilization.

What is Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGT) used for in assisted reproductive technologies?

PGT is used for screening embryos for genetic abnormalities before implantation.

What is the primary role of Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT) in assisted reproduction?

GIFT involves transferring unfertilized eggs and sperm into the fallopian tube to achieve fertilization.

How does the process of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) overcome male infertility?

ICSI involves injecting a single sperm directly into an egg, which can help overcome issues with sperm quality or quantity in male infertility.

Describe the concept of Surrogacy in the context of assisted reproduction.

Surrogacy involves a woman carrying and delivering a baby for another individual or couple.

Explain the importance of cryopreservation in assisted reproductive technologies.

Cryopreservation involves freezing and storing eggs, sperm, or embryos for future use, allowing individuals to preserve their reproductive materials for later fertility treatments.

How does In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) differ from natural conception?

IVF involves fertilizing an egg with sperm outside the body, while natural conception occurs inside the body.

What are some ethical considerations related to the use of assisted reproduction technologies?

Ethical dilemmas can arise regarding the right to procreate, interfering with reproduction processes, and the status of embryos.

Study Notes

Cloning and Parenthood

  • Cloning involves deliberate selection and design of genetic traits, raising ethical concerns about altering the natural process
  • Cloning can lead to despotism over children and alteration of the parent-child relationship

Sex Selection and PGD

  • Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) can determine the gender of embryos through genetic testing and identification of sex chromosomes (XX for female, XY for male)
  • PGD primarily detects genetic disorders, but also reveals embryo gender
  • Critics argue that sex selection can harm children due to imposed gender expectations and is sexist, impacting women's well-being

Reproductive Assistance Technologies

  • In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) involves fertilizing an egg with sperm outside the body in a laboratory dish
  • Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) injects a single sperm directly into an egg to facilitate fertilization
  • Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT) transfers eggs and sperm into the fallopian tubes for natural fertilization
  • Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT) transfers the fertilized egg (zygote) to the fallopian tubes after initial laboratory fertilization
  • Surrogacy involves a woman carrying and delivering a child for another individual or couple
  • Egg and Sperm Donation involve using donor eggs or sperm for fertilization when individuals or couples cannot produce viable gametes
  • Preimplantation Genetic Testing (PGT) screens embryos for genetic abnormalities
  • Cryopreservation involves freezing and storing eggs, sperm, or embryos for future use

Natal Medical Technologies

  • Prenatal Screening and Diagnostic Tests are conducted during pregnancy to assess the health of the fetus and detect potential genetic or chromosomal abnormalities
  • Assisted Labor and Delivery Technologies include electronic fetal monitoring, epidurals for pain relief, and assisted delivery techniques like forceps or vacuum extraction
  • Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Technologies are used for premature or newborn infants with health complications
  • Fetal Imaging Technologies include 3D and 4D ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and fetal echocardiography
  • Cord Blood Banking involves collecting and storing the blood from the umbilical cord after childbirth

Ethical Issues in Reproduction

  • Women's health is profoundly influenced by their ability to make reproductive choices, including decisions about contraception, abortion, and assisted reproduction technologies
  • Ethical dilemmas arise concerning the right to procreate, the moral implications of interfering with reproduction processes, and the status of embryos

Surrogacy and Celebrity Examples

  • Korina Sanchez and Mar Roxas opted for gestational surrogacy to have twins
  • Vicky Belo and Hayden Kho used in vitro fertilization (IVF) to conceive their daughter

Explore ethical dilemmas surrounding procreation and cloning, including issues related to genetic selection, parental control, and altering the natural reproductive process.

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