ERG Theory (Alderfer) - Need-Based Perspectives Quiz

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29 Questions

According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, which category includes physiological and security needs?

Basic needs

In the context of need-based theories of motivation, what do these theories assume causes behavior?

Need deficiencies

What is the top level in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, representing the fulfillment of one's potential?

Self-actualization needs

Which of the following needs is considered a growth need in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?

Esteem needs

What is the primary assumption behind need-based perspectives on motivation?

Motivation is driven by need deficiencies

What motivates individuals according to the Traditional Approach mentioned in the text?


Which approach emphasizes the importance of fostering favorable employee attitudes for motivation?

Human Relations Approach

According to the Human Resource Approach, how should managers encourage participation?

By creating a conducive working environment

What leads to goal-directed behaviors according to the text?

Need deficiency

Which consequence arises from goal-directed behavior based on the text?

Need satisfaction

In the context of motivation, what does the Human Resource Approach emphasize?

Recognition and feedback as motivators

What is the main focus of Process-Based Perspectives on Motivation?

Evaluating satisfaction after attaining goals

Which theory of motivation emphasizes the desire to control resources in one's environment?

The Need for Power

What does the Need for Achievement refer to?

The desire to accomplish tasks or goals effectively

In the context of this text, what is the Need for Affiliation primarily about?

Seeking human companionship

Which theory of motivation focuses on why people choose certain behavioral options to satisfy their needs?

Process-Based Perspectives

According to McClelland, what aspect is associated with the Need for Power?

Controlling resources in the environment

ERG Theory by Alderfer includes which of the following needs?

Existence, Relatedness, and Growth needs

What does the Dual-Structure Theory proposed by Herzberg assume about motivation?

It consists of Motivation factors and Hygiene factors

What does the Dual-Structure Theory suggest happens once hygiene factors are addressed?

Job satisfaction increases

What criticism is mentioned in the text about the Dual-Structure Theory by Herzberg?

It overly emphasizes the impact of pay on motivation

Based on the text provided, what does ERG Theory state about a person's needs in Maslow's Hierarchy?

Several needs can motivate a person simultaneously

Which of the following is NOT an assumption of ERG Theory as described in the text?

'One need at a time' motivates individuals

What is the key factor in determining motivation in the Expectancy Theory?

Performance-to-outcome expectancy

What does 'outcome' refer to in the context of the text?

Anything that results from performing a behavior

Which term in the Expectancy Theory describes the perceived probability that effort will lead to performance?

Effort-to-performance expectancy

In the context of the text, what does 'valence' represent?

The attractiveness or unattractiveness of an outcome

Which factor influences how much we want something according to Vroom's Expectancy Theory?

The degree of attractiveness or unattractiveness of outcomes

What is the central idea behind Vroom's Expectancy Theory of Motivation?

Expectation of outcomes influences motivation

Study Notes

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

  • Physiological and security needs are categorized as basic needs.
  • Self-actualization is the top level, representing the fulfillment of one's potential.
  • Self-actualization is considered a growth need.

Need-Based Theories of Motivation

  • These theories assume that people's behavior is caused by their unfulfilled needs.
  • The primary assumption behind need-based perspectives on motivation is that people are motivated to fulfill their unmet needs.

Traditional Approach to Motivation

  • Individuals are motivated by financial rewards and punishments.

Human Resource Approach to Motivation

  • Favorable employee attitudes are fostered to motivate individuals.
  • Managers should encourage participation by providing opportunities for employees to take part in decision-making and goal-setting.

Goal-Directed Behavior

  • Goal-directed behavior is led by specific, challenging, and attainable goals.
  • Goal-directed behavior leads to increased performance and motivation.

Process-Based Perspectives on Motivation

  • The main focus is on the cognitive processes that influence motivation.
  • Process-Based Perspectives emphasize how people think and feel about their work environment.

Theories of Motivation

  • The Human Resource Approach emphasizes the importance of fulfilling employees' needs to motivate them.
  • The Need for Achievement is the desire to excel and achieve success.
  • The Need for Affiliation is the desire for social interaction and relationships.
  • The Need for Power is the desire to control resources in one's environment.
  • Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs includes physiological, security, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs.
  • ERG Theory by Alderfer includes existence, relatedness, and growth needs.

ERG Theory

  • ERG Theory states that a person's needs in Maslow's Hierarchy are not fixed and can be influenced by the work environment.

Dual-Structure Theory

  • The Dual-Structure Theory proposes that motivation is influenced by two factors: hygiene factors and motivator factors.
  • Once hygiene factors are addressed, motivator factors take over to increase motivation.
  • A criticism of the Dual-Structure Theory is that it oversimplifies motivation.

Expectancy Theory

  • The key factor in determining motivation is the expectancy that effort will lead to desired outcomes.
  • Outcome refers to the desired result of a behavior.
  • Valence represents the perceived value or attractiveness of an outcome.
  • Instrumentality is the perceived probability that effort will lead to performance.
  • The central idea behind Vroom's Expectancy Theory is that motivation is influenced by the expectation of a favorable outcome.

Test your knowledge on ERG Theory proposed by Alderfer, which describes existence (E), relatedness (R), and growth (G) needs. Explore the assumptions associated with this theory and the implications for motivation and behavior.

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