English Culture and History Quiz

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18 Questions

What is the most common theory regarding how the huge stones at Stonehenge were brought to their current location?

Deposited by glaciers

Which ancient people were the first to make use of bronze in the Bronze Age around 1800 BC?

Beaker people

From where did the first beakers, or cups, used by the Beaker people originate?

Iberian Peninsula

Who were the dominant population in the British isle until the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons?

Celts

In what age did the first celts arrive on the British isle according to the text?

700 BC (Later Bronze Age)

What is another term for the Early Iron Age mentioned in the text?

'Hallstatt' Period

What term refers to the transition from the middle stone age to the younger stone age?

Neolithic

Which region did the earliest inhabitants of the British isles come from?

Iberian Peninsula, Northern Africa, and the Mediterranean

What is the significance of Avebury in Wiltshire in relation to prehistoric culture?

It is a site of Neolithic relics.

What term is used to describe big standing stones that functioned as ritual 'settings' around 4,000 BC?

Megaliths

What did the chamber of Maes Howe on Mainland Orkney allow people to observe at a certain time of day?

Movements of celestial bodies

What does the term 'lithos' mean and which ancient language does it originate from?

'Stone' in Greek

What was the primary source of knowledge about the language and culture of the Celts?

Roman conquerors

Who was Pytheas of Marseille and what was his significance?

Greek sea captain and navigator

What is the significance of the Battersea Shield in Celtic history?

An item made for war and now in the British Museum

Why did the Celts mainly live in smaller villages on hilltops?

For defense purposes

What were the three main groups of societies into which the Celts were split up?

Nobles, Druids, peasants

Who continued the knowledge of Celtic culture, literature, and language among the Celts?

Druids

Study Notes

  • Prehistory: English culture and history begin with the Anglo-Saxons in the early middle ages, bringing Old English language and culture.
  • British history: Inhabitants first arrived on the British Isle around 15,000-10,000 BC from the Iberian Peninsula, Northern Africa, and the Mediterranean.
  • Stone Age: Around the time of first settlements, transition from the mesolithic to the neolithic age (around 10,000 BC), marking the beginning of the use of "stone" for tools and buildings (lithos).
  • Megaliths: Not a time period, but refers to big standing stones from around 4,000 BC, functioning as ritual settings and serving various purposes such as burials.
  • Examples of megaliths: Avebury in Wiltshire, Ring of Brodgar on Mainland Orkney, Maes Howe on Mainland Orkney, Skara Brae on Mainland Orkney, and Stonehenge.
  • Beaker People: First people to make use of metal (bronze) and lived around 1.800 BC. Named after the beakers or cups they used for burials.
  • Later Bronze Age on the British Isle: First Celts arrived around 700 BC, originating from Central Europe, and dominated until the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons.
  • Celts: Agricultural people who lived in smaller villages, mostly on hilltops, with notable examples such as Maiden Castle in Dorchester.
  • Celts were illiterate, but the Romans documented their language and culture during their conquests.
  • Exploration: Greek sea captain Pytheas of Marseille explored the British Isles around 330 BC, leaving the first written records of the inhabitants and their way of life.
  • Battersea Shield: A famous relic of the Bronze Age now in the British Museum in London, representing one of the most significant Celtic items of art.
  • Celts: Divided into three groups: Nobles (warriors), Druids (judges, teachers, and first and foremost priests), and the general population.

Test your knowledge on the origins of English culture and history, including the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons in the early middle ages and the earliest inhabitants of the British isles. Learn about the meaning of 'lithos' and its origin language.

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