Endocrine System and Hormonal Changes Quiz

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93 Questions

What is the main function of the sympathetic nervous system?

Dilate eyes and bronchioles, increase blood flow to muscles, and decrease blood flow to digestive organs

Which part of the spinal cord does the sympathetic division originate from?

Thoracic

Where are the collateral ganglia located in the sympathetic nervous system?

Closer to the target effector

How are sympathetic axons different before and after the ganglia?

Before the ganglia they are unmyelinated and short, after they are myelinated and longer

What type of synapses are activated by acetylcholine?

Cholinergic synapses

Which cranial nerve carries fibers to control pupil size?

CN III

What is the function of varicosities in the autonomic nervous system?

Spread through the length of the nerve

Which system is referred to as the 'cranial sacral system'?

Parasympathetic nervous system

What is the term used for the increase in blood pressure and heart rate when a person stands up?

Orthostatic hypotension

What type of receptors are activated by nicotine?

Nicotinic receptors

In which part of the body does CN X innervate the organs?

Thoracic cavity and upper abdominal cavity

What is the term for an area of a nerve that houses neurotransmitters and is spread through the length of the nerve?

Varicosity

Which system exerts more control over the heart under normal conditions?

Parasympathetic nervous system

What type of receptors are activated by norepinephrine and epinephrine?

Alpha and beta receptors

Which part of the body does CN VII control?

Saliva and tear production

What is the term for an increase in blood pressure and heart rate when a person stands up?

Orthostatic hypotension

What is the primary function of the amygdala?

Influencing the hypothalamus based on emotional states

Which part of the nervous system does nicotine primarily affect?

Sympathetic nervous system

Which type of drugs enhance the parasympathetic response?

Parasympathomimetic drugs

What is the function of anticholinergic drugs?

Reduce the parasympathetic response

Where do lipid soluble hormones travel to activate a hormone receptor?

Nucleus

Which second messenger is most commonly used for carrying the message of amino acid hormones?

Cyclic adenosine phosphate (cAMP)

What does phosphorylate mean in the context of hormone activation?

To add a phosphate group to

What is the function of phosphodiesterase (PDE) in hormone signaling?

To turn off cyclic adenosine phosphate (cAMP)

What is a characteristic of lipid soluble hormones?

They need help from proteins to travel through the cardiovascular system

What is the role of G protein in hormone signaling?

To split a phospholipid into diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol triphosphate (IP3)

What is the primary function of endogenous chemicals in the body?

To make slow-acting hormones for maintaining homeostasis

What is the function of exogenous chemicals in the body?

To come from outside the body

What is the primary function of estrogen?

Developing the reproductive system

Which hormone is responsible for decreasing blood glucose levels by getting glucose into cells that need energy?

Insulin

What is the role of human placental lactogen (hPL) produced by the placenta?

Preparing the breasts for lactation

Which hormone inhibits the release of insulin and glucagon?

Somatostatin

What is the process of breaking down stored triglycerides into free fatty acids or glycerol called?

Lipolysis

Which organ produces atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in response to atrial stretch due to increase in blood pressure?

Heart

What does cholecystokinin do?

Promotes pancreatic enzyme and bile production

What hormone stimulates blood cell production in the bone marrow?

Erythropoietin (EPO)

Which tissue produces leptin that regulates bone metabolism and makes a person feel full after eating?

Adipose tissue

What is the inactive form of vitamin D produced by the skin?

Cholecalciferol

Which cells make up 20% of each pancreatic islet and produce glucagon?

Alpha cells

What hormone does the pancreas produce to decrease blood glucose levels?

Insulin

What is the role of DAG in the cell?

Activates protein kinases to start phosphorylation

What happens when downregulation occurs in cells?

The number of receptors decreases due to excessive stimulation

What is the opposite of downregulation in target cells?

Upregulation

What is the permissive effect of a hormone?

Enables another hormone to act

What happens when two hormones with similar effects produce a synergistic effect?

Amplify the total effect

What is the antagonistic effect of two hormones?

They have opposite effects and may cancel each other out

What is the function of the infundibulum in the endocrine system?

Connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus

Which hormone is secreted by the posterior pituitary during childbirth?

Oxytocin

What is the primary function of a reticulocyte?

To mature into an erythrocyte

How do erythrocytes obtain their energy for survival?

By anaerobic respiration

What is the main function of hemoglobin within an erythrocyte?

To carry and transport oxygen

Why do erythrocytes have a thin middle and a plump periphery?

To increase their flexibility

What causes elevated hematocrit levels in individuals living at high elevations?

Decreased oxygen in the air

Which condition is characterized by the abnormal shape of erythrocytes and reduced oxygen-carrying capacity?

Anemia

What is the primary role of basophils among granular leukocytes?

Release of histamine and heparin

Which leukocyte is known for its quick response to bacterial infections?

Neutrophil

What is the main function of T cells among lymphocytes?

Attack on infected cells

What is the characteristic feature of agranular leukocytes?

They have a complete cell structure with a nucleus

What is the main cause of vitamin deficient anemia?

Insufficient iron intake

What is the primary role of monocytes among leukocytes?

Differentiation into macrophages and dendritic cells

What causes an increase in heart rate, contractility, and blood pressure?

Thyroid hormone

Which hormone increases sodium levels?

Aldosterone

What stimulates the fight or flight response?

Epinephrine

What inhibits the inflammatory response and increases blood glucose levels?

Cortisol

Which gland secretes a hormone that decreases blood calcium levels?

Pineal gland

Which hormone stimulates tryiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) secretion into the bloodstream?

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

What is the most common hormone produced by mineralocorticoids?

Aldosterone

Which gland is posterior to the hypothalamus and secretes melatonin?

Pineal gland

What stimulates the retina of the eye and promotes wakefulness?

Blue light

Which hormone helps to supplement androgen production of the gonads?

Androgens

Which hormone blocks the body’s release of iron?

Hepcidin

What is the main function of erythrocytes?

Transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide

Which protein is the most common in blood plasma and transports fatty acids and steroid hormones?

Albumin

What is the percentage of erythrocytes in blood, as mentioned in the text?

25%

With aging, which hormones decrease?

Aldosterone, cortisol, and thyroid hormones

What is the hematocrit a measure of?

The percentage of red blood cells in blood

From where does hemopoiesis occur?

Red marrow in bones

Which type of stem cells become erythrocytes, platelets, monocytes, or granular leukocytes?

Myeloid stem cells

What causes the hemocytoblast to divide and differentiate?

Hemopoietic growth factor

What is the primary function of Thrombopoietin?

Stimulating platelet production

What is the main function of Parathyroid hormone?

Increasing calcium levels

What happens to blood viscosity when compared to water?

It is much greater than water

Which hormone can help in the regulation of blood pressure?

Angiotensinogen

What is the primary function of hepcidin in the body?

Blocking the release of iron

Which hormone is responsible for stimulating platelet production?

Thrombopoietin

What is the primary role of parathyroid hormone?

Increasing calcium levels

How does time affect insulin sensitivity and insulin production in cells?

Decreases both insulin production and sensitivity

Which type of leukocyte is primarily responsible for protecting the body from external and internal threats like bacteria and viruses?

Lymphocytes

What is the main function of platelets in the body?

Coagulation and stopping bleeding

What is the primary role of erythrocytes in the body?

Transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide

What is the main function of albumin, the most common plasma protein?

Transporting fatty acids and steroid hormones

What is the primary function of globulins, the second most common plasma protein?

Transporting iron, lipids, and vitamins

What is the least common plasma protein and what is its importance?

Fibrinogen, important for blood clotting

Test your knowledge of the endocrine system and hormonal changes that occur as we grow and develop. This quiz covers topics such as angiotensinogen, thrombopoietin, hepcidin, human growth hormone, insulin, and more.

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