Effects of Ischemia on Myocardium

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What is the consequence of a fast decrease in mitochondrial phosphorylation in the myocardium?

Reduction in ATP production

How does the lack of ATP affect the intracellular environment of the myocardium?

Results in an increase in intracellular sodium and calcium

What is the impact of extracellular calcium moving into the damaged myocardial cells?

Accumulation in the mitochondria

How can reperfusion injury be reduced in the myocardium?

Superoxide dismutase and vitamin E supplementation

How does cortisol affect blood glucose levels?

It inhibits uptake of glucose by body cells

What is the catabolic effect of cortisol?

Suppression of the inflammatory response in lymphoid tissue

How does cortisol act as an immunosuppressant?

By reducing eosinophil, lymphocyte, and macrophage levels

What is the potential effect of extreme physiologic stressors, according to the text?

General state of unpleasant arousal after life events

What is the term stress defined as in the context of the text?

A demand that exceeds a person’s coping abilities

Which gland is very sensitive to emotional, psychological, and social influences in the stress response?

Adrenal gland

What suppresses reproduction, growth, and thyroid hormone during stress, according to the text?


What is one of the primary effects of cortisol mentioned in the text?

Inhibition of gluconeogenesis

What is the purpose of the 3-stage research process described in the text?

To determine if a treatment is safe and effective for humans

What is the significance of using double blind studies in human trials?

To keep the patients' names confidential and ensure unbiased results

What does 'evidence-based research findings' refer to?

Research findings that have demonstrated merit after 3-stage processes

How do regulatory bodies like the FDA contribute to the research process?

By reviewing and approving research findings based on safety and effectiveness

What is the primary focus in health care according to the text?

Preventing the spread of infections and diseases

What is the significance of knowing 'normal' Anatomy and Physiology as mentioned in the text?

To establish a baseline for assessing deviations due to disease processes

Which stage of prevention involves protecting healthy individuals from getting a disease or injury?

Primary prevention

What is the main goal of tertiary prevention as discussed in the text?

To manage long-term health problems and complications

Which term refers to the causative factors of a particular disease?


What type of disease process is characterized by sudden but usually short-lived symptoms?


What do you call the preventive treatments like baby aspirin for heart disease?


What is the term for a specific sign or symptom that is only felt by the patient for a particular disease?


What does the term 'idiopathic' mean in the context of diseases?

Cause unknown

What is the term for the development or sequence of events involved in tissue changes related to a specific disease process?


Which diagnostic test assists in diagnosis based on clinical manifestations, medical history, and results of clinical exams?

Blood tests

What is the term for no obvious signs or symptoms, but pathological change may be occurring?


What is the term for a local change in tissue that may be microscopic or highly visible?


What does 'latent' refer to in the context of diseases?

No obvious signs but pathological change may be occurring

What term describes the specific signs and symptoms for particular diseases?


Test your knowledge on the effects of ischemia on the myocardium. Learn about the fast decrease in mitochondrial phosphorylation, loss of ATP, increase in anaerobic metabolism, and its impact on intracellular sodium, potassium, and calcium levels.

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