Dracunculiasis (Guinea-worm Disease)

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How does a person typically become infected with Guinea worm disease?

By drinking water containing water fleas infected with guinea worm larvae

Where do the D.medinensis larvae reside before infecting humans?

In aquatic crustaceans called copepods or water fleas

What happens to the copepods after a person drinks water containing them?

They die during digestion, releasing the D.medinensis larvae

What happens to the D.medinensis larvae after they exit the digestive tract?

They take refuge in the abdomen or retroperitoneal space

What happens to the male worm after reaching its adult size?

It dies after mating with a female worm

Where does the female Guinea worm migrate to continue its development?

To connective tissue

What does the female Guinea worm induce when it reaches an exit site on the skin?

An intensely painful blister on the skin

What discomfort does the infected person experience during the weeks while the worm emerges?

Intense pain at the site of emergence

How long does it take for the worm to completely emerge from the skin of an infected person?

$3-10$ weeks

What is a possible consequence if the open wound caused by the emerging worm becomes infected with bacteria?

Death in around 1% of cases

What is responsible for causing Guinea worm disease?

A parasitic infection by water fleas

How do humans become unintentionally infected with guinea worm larvae?

Drinking unfiltered water containing infected copepods

How is dracunculiasis diagnosed?

By visual examination of the white worm emerging from the blister

What happens when the wound touches freshwater?

The female spews a milky-white substance containing larvae into the water

What happens to the larvae after being discharged into freshwater?

They are eaten by copepods and become infectious to humans after two to three weeks of development

How is dracunculiasis primarily transmitted from person to person?

Through contaminated drinking water containing copepods

What is the recommended treatment for dracunculiasis once the worm begins to exit the body?

Regular wound care, cleaning the wound, applying antibiotic ointment, and replacing the bandage with fresh gauze

What can help ease the pain of the worm's exit?

$7(9 - 1)$ painkillers like paracetamol or ibuprofen

What can contaminated water be treated with to prevent dracunculiasis?

$8 - 6$ larvicide temephos

What is a recommended method for preventing the transmission of D.medinensis from person to person?

$15 imes 4$ application of nylon filters to drinking water

How is dracunculiasis primarily transmitted from person to person?

Through contaminated drinking water containing copepods

Where is dracunculiasis still endemic?

Chad, Ethiopia, Mali, and South Sudan

What happens if too much pressure is applied during the removal of the worm?

The worm dies and leads to severe swelling and pain at the site of the ulcer

What are effective means of copepod removal from drinking water?

Using nylon filters or finely woven cloth

Test your knowledge about Dracunculiasis, also known as Guinea-worm disease, a parasitic infection caused by the Guinea worm, Dracunculus medinensis. Learn about the transmission, symptoms, and prevention of this disease.

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