Distinction within Incommensurability

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What is one of the reasons for paradigms being incommensurable in a methodological sense?

Circularity in evaluating theoretical content

According to Kuhn, what contributes to incommensurability in a semantic sense?

Distinct bridge principles connecting terms to observations

How does Kuhn view the distinction between theoretical and observational vocabulary?

As a concept rejected by Kuhn

What does Kuhn believe about the observability of a paradigm-independent world?

There is no paradigm-independent world to be observed

Why does Neue Gestalt assert that paradigm disputes cannot be resolved without using data from the same paradigm?

Since observations are theory-laden

What factor contributes to the inability to compare Paradigm1 and Paradigm2 based on the theoretical content alone?

Circularity in methods of evaluation

What distinguishes between explanandum and explanans in the Covering Law model of explanation?

Explanandum refers to the statement describing what is to be explained, while explanans refers to the statements that provide the explanation.

Which logical requirement states that the explanans must deductively entail the explanandum in a DN explanation?

DNL1

What must be included in the sentences that make up the explanans according to DNL2 in the Covering Law model?

Sentences expressing general laws.

What is the empirical content requirement specified in the Covering Law model?

The explanations must be tested by experiments or observations.

Which accounts form the combination in the Covering Law model of explanation?

'CL' and 'IS' accounts

According to Aristotle's 4 causes, which cause is related to the explanations in the Covering Law model?

Efficient cause

What does semantics emphasize about the models in a scientific theory?

They are idealized structures not actually part of the world.

How does the Realist view of syntactically conceived theories define approximate truth?

Theories are approximately true but not precise representations of the world.

What is a key response to the problem of idealization in scientific theories?

Considering theories as approximately true despite not being precise representations.

What did logical empiricism dominate in the English-speaking world in the middle of the twentieth century?

Philosophy of science

In which way do linguistic formulations associated with a theory resemble aspects of the world?

They are approximate and may not be true representations.

What is a defining feature of idealized structures in scientific theories according to semantics?

They are not part of the actual world.

Why can't statements like 'this sample is acidic' be equivalent to statements of the form 'if this sample is subjected to conditions x, then observable condition y will be realized'?

Because the latter statement always holds true when the former is false.

How did logical positivists attempt to address the issue of weakening relationships between statements using VT and VO?

By avoiding allowing metaphysical statements to satisfy the criteria of cognitive meaningfulness.

What did Carnap affirm regarding the verification of synthetic statements?

No synthetic statement can be verified completely and definitively.

During the 1960s/70s, what challenge was presented to a central assumption of the logical empiricists?

The kind of thing a scientific theory is.

What did Carnap suggest was needed in the discussion about scientific theories?

Precision.

Which aspect of scientific discourse led to the need for the modification of the Verification principle?

Statements involving generalizations.

What is the role of bridging terms in the context of reduction?

To add principles connecting the terms of the reduced theory and the reducing theory

In what scenario does a homogeneous reduction occur?

When terms from the reduced theory can be defined using standard logical operations on terms from the reducing theory

What is a characteristic of heterogeneous reduction?

It uses terms that are foreign to the reducing theory

How does increasing explanatory power relate to reductions?

Reductions involve a kind of theory change that isn't mere change and can increase explanatory power

What distinguishes semantic reduction from other forms of reduction?

Semantic reduction follows from the reducing theory alone

What makes reductions constitute clear cases of scientific progress?

When they involve a kind of theory change that isn't mere change and enhance explanatory power

Explore the concept of incommensurability within rival paradigms, particularly focusing on methodological incommensurability. Delve into Thomas Kuhn's idea of circularity influencing the evaluation of theoretical content and available data within different paradigms.

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