Diabetic Complications and Lab Studies

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10 Questions

Which condition is characterized by hypersecretion of growth hormone in children?

Gigantism

What is a common cause of diabetes insipidus?

Tumor in the pituitary gland

What is the main issue associated with acromegaly in adults?

Enlargement of internal organs

What is the most reliable test to confirm diabetes?

Hemoglobin A1C test

Which medication is used to manage Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH)?

Demeclocycline

What is the primary sign of fluid overload?

Edema

Which metabolic parameter is monitored to check for dehydration or renal failure?

Urine specific gravity

In diabetic emergencies, what is the lifespan of red blood cells (RBCs) used in the glycosylated hemoglobin test?

~90 days

What does the glycosylated hemoglobin test measure in relation to diabetes control?

% of glycosylated hemoglobin in the blood

What is a common symptom experienced by individuals with acromegaly?

Excessive sweating

Study Notes

  • Diabetic emergencies include Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Coma (HHNC), and Hypoglycemia (Insulin Shock).
  • DKA is characterized by symptoms like blurred vision, weakness, acetone breath, Kussmaul respirations, and can lead to acidosis with plasma glucose levels exceeding 350 mg/dL.
  • Treatment for DKA involves restoring fluid and electrolyte balance, reversing acidosis with NaHCO3, monitoring urine ketones, administering regular insulin, and preventing complications like hypokalemia and hypoglycemia.
  • HHNC is similar to DKA but lacks Kussmaul respirations and acetone breath.
  • Hypoglycemia can be caused by factors like omission of meals, overdose of insulin, strenuous exercise, and requires management with simple sugars orally or intravenously.
  • Insulin therapy involves understanding different types of insulin such as Rapid-Acting, Regular, Intermediate Acting, Long Acting, and Pre-mixed Insulin to manage blood glucose levels effectively.
  • Diabetic patients need to be monitored for signs and symptoms of diabetic complications like Glaucoma, Diabetic Stroke, Diabetic Nephropathy, and should maintain an ideal body weight, serum lipid profile, and engage in regular physical activity.

Explore the possible complications of diabetes such as glaucoma, diabetic stroke, and nephropathy, as well as lab studies like glycosylated hemoglobin and blood glucose levels. Learn about the importance of monitoring insulin levels and the significance of diagnostic tests.

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