Unit 10.1 to 10.3

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Which psychologist conducted research on the stages of development of infants and children?

Jean Piaget

What did Jean Piaget label as the inability of preschool children to take the perspective of others?

Egocentric phase

Which aspect of cognitive development involves processing information, memory, perception, and learning language?

Cognitive development

Who stressed the importance of self-identity in everything we do and the people we meet each day?

Antony Giddens

How is self-identity described in the text?

Influenced by experiences and interactions

What aspect of development does Anthony Giddens emphasize in late modernity?

The development of self-identity

At what age does a baby typically start to become responsive to others?

2 months

What is one of the ways in which a baby shows the realization that there is an 'out there' distinct from themselves?

Reaching out to grasp an object

What marks the change in behavior from passive to active for infants?

Imitating behaviors observed

How does language development help children distinguish themselves?

By recognizing their gender, age, and name

What characteristic is mentioned as helping infants realize they have distinct properties?

Watching a person, pet, or object

When do children typically learn that other objects, including people, have specific characteristics?

During early childhood development

What term is used to refer to an individual's unique speech pattern?

Idiolect

Which of the following is an example of a sociolect?

Jargon used at work

How are gender, age, ethnicity, and religion related to language according to the text?

They play a role in the language people use to maintain self-identity

In what way can language be crucial for group identity maintenance?

By reinforcing solidarity through common speech patterns

Why might language be particularly significant during adolescence according to the text?

To create new identities and relationships with common speech patterns

Which part of your life influences your sense of self-identity, according to the text?

Gender, age, beliefs, education, work, and social patterns combined

What important language features play a significant role in managing conversations harmoniously?

Conversational maxims and the conversational face

In John Donne's 'Devotions Upon Emergent Occasions,' what imagery does the poet use to emphasize the interconnectedness between individuals in society?

Island and continent

What did John Donne emphasize with his line 'No man is an island' from 'Devotions Upon Emergent Occasions'?

The interconnectedness between individuals in society

Which poet is mentioned in the text for highlighting the relationships between individuals in society?

John Donne

What key concept is discussed as having a considerable influence on our sense of self in conversations?

Conversational maxims

What is the concept of 'face' in conversational cooperation?

Each speaker's sense of their own linguistic image and worth

How do speakers typically use positive politeness in conversations?

By being complimentary to the person they are speaking to before a potentially face-threatening act

Which conjunction is commonly used in disagreements instead of 'no' according to the text?

'But'

How does negative politeness differ from positive politeness in conversations?

Negative politeness avoids imposing requests, while positive politeness compliments the listener

How do strategies that consider the relative status of participants contribute to conversational success?

They increase the likelihood of conversational success

What is a common strategy used in managing face-threatening acts in conversations?

'Yes but' to soften disagreements

Which maxim advises speakers to express relevant information in a clear manner?

Maxim of Relation

Which maxim requires speakers to avoid obscurity of expression and ambiguity?

Maxim of Manner

What principle did Paul Grice establish in 1975 to guide conversations?

Conversation Maxims

Which purpose for speaking is NOT mentioned in the text?

Analyzing

What concept underlies all the purposes for speaking according to the text?

Cooperative Principle

Due to social media, what impact has been observed in relation to the conversational maxims mentioned in the text?

Increased divergence from the maxims

Which cognitive skill is responsible for the ability to actively retain a small amount of information in the brain?

Attention

What cognitive ability is related to understanding relationships between objects and visualizing images and ideas?

Attention

If someone is skilled at changing sounds into words to be spoken, which cognitive skill are they primarily using?

Language

Which cognitive skill is responsible for the ability to move the body and manipulate objects?

Attention

If an individual is recognizing and interpreting information through their senses, which cognitive skill are they utilizing?

Perception

Which cognitive ability involves the storage and retrieval of information in the brain for an indefinite period of time?

Memory

Which philosopher believed that it requires very little reason to be able to speak?

Descartes

What theory asserts that our sense of self-identity and knowledge of language come through sensory experiences?

Empiricism

Which theory suggests that the mind is born with ideas, contradicting the 'blank slate' theory?

Innatism

Who believed that ideas were in the mind at birth and given by a supreme being?

Plato

Which theory emphasizes that individuals are born with genetic abilities for language development?

Nativism

Who proposed the theory that ideas come through sensory experiences and not reasoning?

John Locke

Which theory suggests that language acquisition occurs directly from observing and imitating others?

Behaviourism

According to linguists in the early 20th century, learning a language involves more than just naming objects; it also requires:

Knowledge of how to put meaning on words and phrases

Historically, philosophers believed that language acquisition was related to a person's general ability to:

Carry out logical reasoning

Who further developed John Watson's research into behaviourism by exploring the relationship between mind development and language?

B.F. Skinner

How do some linguists view the relationship between language and thought?

As two separate entities with thought coming before language

What is the role of language in building relationships, according to the text?

It is essential for building relationships on various levels

How do cognitive skills interact with language according to the text?

Cognitive skills influence the development of language

Why is the relationship between language and thought considered important for individuals?

For interacting effectively within society

Which group benefits from the relationship between language and thought, according to the text?

Individuals and groups in various social contexts

How does the understanding of language and thought contribute to an individual's sense of self?

It solidifies self-identity through clear communication

According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, how does language influence the way people think?

Language shapes the thoughts of its speakers directly.

What is the concept of linguistic reflection?

The idea that language does not determine thoughts but reflects them.

How does linguistic relativity differ from linguistic determinism?

Linguistic determinism implies that language determines thought, while linguistic relativity indicates that language impacts views but doesn't confine them.

In terms of time perception, what criticism arose concerning Whorf's comparison between English and Hopi Indians' languages?

The Hopi Indians had a concept of time based on past, present, and future events.

What does the Boas-Jakobson principle suggest regarding language and thought?

Every thought can be expressed in every language, but they differ in the information required.

What did Guy Deutcher explain in his book 'Through the Looking Glass' regarding languages?

'Through the Looking Glass' explains various language concepts such as different requirements in expressing thoughts.

How did George Orwell demonstrate the use of language in controlling thought in his novel '1984'?

'1984' portrays a tightly controlled society reinforced by an official language called 'Newspeak'.

What is the main difference between Sapir-Whorf's view and Boas-Jakobson's principle on language development?

'Sapir-Whorf focuses on how languages directly shape thoughts, while Boas-Jakobson emphasizes that all thoughts can be expressed in any language.'

How do Hungarian, Finnish, and Vietnamese languages differ from English and French in terms of gender marking?

'Hungarian, Finnish, and Vietnamese do not have gender markers like 'he' or 'she', unlike English and French.'

'Through the Looking Glass: Why the world looks different in other languages' explores which aspect of language development?

'How different languages impact individuals' perceptions and understanding.'

What term has largely replaced 'handicapped' when referring to people with disabilities?

Disabled

In a workplace context, the increasing number of women in senior roles challenges the traditional assumption that:

The boss is always female

Which term is considered more respectful than 'decrepit' or 'senile' when referring to older individuals?

'Senior citizens'

Which country's government-led National Disability Strategy emphasizes the inclusion and participation of people living with a disability in everyday life?

Australia

What do laws against disability discrimination seek to achieve regarding how people view individuals with disabilities?

To remove the belief that people are defined by their disability

'Politically correct' language aims to treat all individuals equally, but what criticism has it faced?

Denying freedom of speech

What is the main idea behind the theory of universalism as mentioned in the text?

Language reflects human thoughts and all languages share common patterns and concepts.

How does language influence ideas about social equality according to the text?

By changing traditional job titles to be more inclusive and neutral.

What kind of cognitive processes do all humans share, according to universalism?

Memory and perception

In what way does the theory of universalism support the claim that all languages are similar?

By highlighting the presence of nouns and verbs in all languages.

How do beliefs about language influence behavior towards social groups according to the text?

By reflecting biases or prejudices through language

What is one key evidence mentioned in the text to support the theory of universalism?

The presence of vowels and consonants in spoken languages

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