Database Design and Users

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What is the primary purpose of Data Control Languages?

To grant and revoke privileges on DB objects

What type of database system uses a single computer with one database?

Centralized Database System

What is the classification of DBMSs based on the number of users?

Single-user vs. Multi-user

What is the term used to describe database systems that use multiple computers and multiple databases?

Distributed Database System

What is the characteristic of Traditional DBMSs?

They use relational, network, or hierarchical data model

What type of languages specify what data to retrieve, rather than how to retrieve it?

Declarative languages

What is the purpose of Data Definition Language (DDL)?

To create database objects and define internal and external schemas

What type of interfaces are designed for naïve users?

Forms-based

What is the function of a pre-compiler approach in programmer interfaces?

To embed DML in a general-purpose programming language

What is an example of a high-level language?

SQL

What is the purpose of Data Manipulation Language (DML)?

To specify database retrievals and updates

What type of users interact with the database without writing programs, instead writing queries using a query language (SQL)?

Sophisticated users

What is the primary activity of the Data Processing (DP) department?

Programming

What is a drawback of using file systems to store data?

Data redundancy and inconsistency

What is meant by data independence?

Data storage characteristics do not affect data access

What is a consequence of uncontrolled concurrent access by multiple users?

Data inconsistency

What is a database system component that defines and regulates the collection, storage, management, and use of data?

Database system

What is the purpose of a data dictionary in a DBMS?

To store definitions of data elements and relationships

What is a characteristic of a well-designed database?

Facilitates data management and generates accurate and valuable information

What is a consequence of file systems evolving from manual systems?

Each file used its own application program to store, retrieve, modify data

What is a benefit of using a database system?

Eliminates most of file system’s problems

What is the primary function of the Application Server Tier in a 3-Tier Architecture?

Provides application and business services

What is the main purpose of the Database Server Tier?

To provide data services and data validation

What is a common feature of 3-Tier Architecture in Web applications?

It has an intermediate layer called the Application Server

What is the purpose of the Security feature in the Application Server Tier?

To encrypt the data at the server before transmission and decrypt data at the client

What is the main purpose of database system utilities?

To perform functions such as loading data, backing up, reorganizing, report generation, and performance monitoring

What is an example of a No-SQL DBMS product?

MongoDB

What is the primary goal of data abstraction in a database?

To hide storage details and present a conceptual view

What is a key benefit of using a database approach in terms of data storage?

Controlling redundancy in data storage

What is a major advantage of using a database management system?

Allowing a set of concurrent users to retrieve and update the database

What is another term for the process of managing concurrent transactions in a database?

Concurrency control

What is a key implication of using a database approach in large organizations?

Enforcing standards for data items

What is an advantage of a database management system in terms of data security?

Restricting unauthorized access to data

Study Notes

Database Systems

  • Sophisticated users, such as business analysts, scientists, and engineers, interact with the database using a query language (SQL) without writing programs.
  • Stand-alone users, such as those using tax programs, maintain personal databases using ready-to-use packaged applications.

Importance of Database Design

  • Database design focuses on designing the database structure for end-user data.
  • The designer must identify the database's expected use.
  • A well-designed database: • Facilitates data management. • Generates accurate and valuable information.
  • A poorly designed database: • Causes difficult-to-trace errors.

Historical Roots of Database Systems

  • File systems were initially used to store data.
  • File systems resembled manual systems, with each file owning its own application program to store, retrieve, and modify data.
  • As the number of files increased, file systems evolved to include each file owning its own application program.
  • Drawbacks of using file systems include: • Data redundancy and inconsistency. • Difficulty in accessing data. • Ad hoc queries were impossible. • Changing existing structures was difficult. • Data isolation and integrity problems. • Atomicity of updates and concurrent access by multiple users. • Security problems.

Database Systems

  • A database system consists of a logically related data stored in a single logical data repository.
  • A database system: • Defines and regulates the collection, storage, management, and use of data. • Comprises five major parts: hardware, software, people, procedures, and data.
  • DBMS (Database Management System) eliminates most of the file system's problems.

DBMS Functions

  • Data dictionary (metadata) management: • Stores definitions of data elements and relationships. • Looks up required data component structures and relationships. • Changes are automatically recorded in the dictionary.
  • Data storage management: • Creates and manages complex structures required for data storage. • Stores related data entry forms, screen definitions, report definitions, etc.
  • Three-Tier Architecture: • Common for web applications. • Includes an intermediate layer called an application server or web server.

Classification of DBMSs

  • Based on the data model used: • Traditional: Relational, Network, Hierarchical. • Emerging: Object-oriented, Object-relational.
  • Other classifications: • Single-user vs. Multi-user. • Centralized vs. Distributed.
  • Centralized DBMS: • Combines everything into a single system.
  • Distributed Database Systems: • Are now known as client-server-based database systems.

DBMS Languages

  • High-Level/Non-procedural Languages: • SQL (Structured Query Language). • Set-oriented and specify what data to retrieve.
  • Low-Level/Procedural Languages: • PL/SQL and other programming languages. • Specify how to retrieve data.

Types of SQL Statements

  • Data Definition Language (DDL): • Used by the DBA, developers, and database designers. • Specifies the conceptual schema of a database and creates database objects.
  • Data Manipulation Language (DML): • Used to specify database retrievals and updates. • Can be embedded in a general-purpose programming language or applied directly.

Advantages of Using the Database Approach

  • Controlling redundancy in data storage and development and maintenance efforts.
  • Sharing of data among multiple users.
  • Restricting unauthorized access to data.
  • Providing persistent storage for program objects.
  • Providing storage structures for efficient query processing.
  • Providing backup and recovery services.
  • Providing multiple interfaces to different classes of users.
  • Representing complex relationships among data.
  • Enforcing integrity constraints on the database.
  • Drawing inferences and actions using rules.

Additional Implications of Using the Database Approach

  • Potential for enforcing standards.
  • Standards refer to data item names, display formats, screens, report structures, meta-data, etc.

This quiz covers the importance of database design, types of users, and how they interact with databases. Learn about sophisticated users, stand-alone users, and the role of database design. Test your knowledge of database concepts!

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