Comparing Ourselves to Others

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Which animals have passed the mirror test?

Humans and great apes

What is self-concept?

The sum total of personal attributes

What are self-schemas?

Beliefs about oneself that guide the processing of self-relevant information

What is affective forecasting?

Predicting how we would feel in response to future events

What is the impact bias?

Overestimating the strength and duration of responses

What is introspection?

Creating convincing explanations for our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors

What did a study on background music and mood reveal?

People feel good for unknown reasons

What is the Self Perception Theory?

The theory that people gain insight into themselves by watching their own behaviors

What is the over justification effect?

When intrinsic motivation for an activity decreases when rewarded

What is the purpose of social comparison?

To evaluate one's own abilities and opinions by comparing oneself to others

What is the impact of upward comparison on self-perception?

It makes one rate themselves worse

What is the term used to describe changes in emotion caused by changes in facial expression?

Facial feedback hypothesis

What did the study by Marzoli et al. (2013) find about facial expressions and emotions?

Those frowning felt more angry, even though they said mood was not impacted by sun

What did the study by Wood et al. (2000) find about Waterloo students and social comparisons?

Waterloo students spontaneously compare themselves to those less successful when wanting to feel better about themselves

According to the sociometer theory, why do people seek social approval from others?

Because they are inherently social

What is the main difference between collectivist and individualistic cultures?

Collectivist cultures are more likely to list group identities, while individualistic cultures are more likely to list traits and goals

What is the relationship between self-esteem and success in life?

Self-esteem is a consequence of success in life

Which group of people has higher self-esteem scores compared to White people?

African Americans

What is the main purpose of autobiographical memory?

To inform self-concept and personal history

What is the main difference between Group 1 and Group 2 in the epinephrine injection study?

Group 1 was injected with epinephrine and told what the drug would do, while Group 2 was injected with epinephrine but not told about the effects

What is the main difference between European American and East Asian participants in the survey conducted by Kim & Markus?

European American participants chose the common color pen, while East Asian participants chose the unique color pen

According to Baumeister (1991), what are some methods people use to stop thinking about something?

Self-medicate

What is self-regulation?

The process of controlling thoughts, feelings, or behavior to achieve a personal or social goal

Which cultural group tends to use self-enhancement tactics?

Individualists

What is the spotlight effect?

The tendency to believe that others are paying more attention to them than they actually are

What are the goals of strategic self-presentation?

Ingratiation and self-promotion

According to Pontari & Schlenker (2000), what is a negative aspect of strategic self-presentation?

Conceited

What is the Candy Mirror test?

A test to measure self-awareness

What is the spotlight effect based on?

Overestimating the extent to which one's actions and appearance are noticed by others

What are some methods people may use for self-regulation?

Controlling thoughts, feelings, or behavior to achieve a personal or social goal

Which animals have passed the mirror test?

Humans, great apes, dolphins, and elephants

What is self-concept?

The sum total of an individual's beliefs about personal attributes

What is affective forecasting?

Predicting how we would feel in response to future events

What is introspection?

Thinking about ourselves

What is the impact bias?

Overestimating the strength and duration of our emotional responses

What did a study on background music and mood reveal?

People are not aware of the impact of background music on their mood

What did the study by Wood et al. (2000) find about Waterloo students and social comparisons?

Waterloo students engage in more social comparisons than other students

What is the main purpose of self-perception theory?

To gain insight into our own behaviors

According to the facial feedback hypothesis, what can cause changes in emotion?

Changes in facial expression

What is the over justification effect?

When intrinsic motivation diminishes for activities that are rewarded

What did the study on kids playing with markers find?

Kids who were told they would receive a gold star colored less

What is the main focus of social comparison theory?

People evaluate their own abilities and opinions by comparing themselves to others

What did the study on social media and self-perception find?

Passive scrolling on social media is associated with feeling worse about oneself

What did the study on Waterloo students and social comparisons find?

Waterloo students spontaneously compare themselves to those less successful when wanting to feel better about themselves

What is the main difference between autobiographical memory and other types of memory?

Autobiographical memory is a memory of personal history.

What is the recency effect in autobiographical memory?

It refers to remembering the things at the end of a list.

What is the main difference between collectivist and individualistic cultures in terms of self-identity?

Collectivist cultures prioritize the importance of the interdependent self, while individualistic cultures prioritize the importance of the independent self.

What was the result of the study conducted by Kim & Markus (1999) on European American and East Asian participants?

European American participants chose the unique color pen more often than East Asian participants.

What is the main difference between trait and state elements of self-esteem?

Trait elements of self-esteem are more stable over a lifetime, while state elements fluctuate in response to feedback.

What is the main purpose of sociometer theory?

To explain why people seek social approval from others.

What are some outcomes associated with high self-esteem?

Happiness, healthiness, productivity, and success.

Which of the following is NOT a method people may use to stop thinking about something, according to Baumeister (1991)?

Fix what we are feeling bad about

What is the term used to describe the process by which people control their thoughts, feelings, or behavior in order to achieve a personal or social goal?

Self-Regulation

Self-regulation is

A difficult process

Which cultural group tends to use self-enhancement tactics, according to the text?

Individualists

What is the spotlight effect based on, according to Gilovich et al. (2000)?

The belief that one's actions and appearance are noticed by others

What are the two types of self-presentation mentioned in the text?

Strategic self-presentation and self-verification

According to Pontari & Schlenker (2000), what is a negative aspect of strategic self-presentation?

It takes cognitive energy to pretend to be someone we're not

What is the main difference between individualists and collectivists in terms of self-esteem, according to the text?

Individualists tend to have higher self-esteem than collectivists

What is the Candy Mirror test mentioned in the text?

An experiment involving candy and mirrors

What is the definition of self-regulation?

The process by which people control their thoughts, feelings, or behavior in order to achieve a personal or social goal.

What is the spotlight effect?

The tendency to believe that the social spotlight shines more brightly on them than it really does.

What is self-presentation?

Strategies that people use to shape what others think of them.

What are the goals of strategic self-presentation?

Ingratiation (getting along with others) and self-promotion (getting ahead of others).

What is the spotlight effect based on?

The tendency to overestimate the extent to which their actions and appearance are noticed by others.

Study Notes

Animals and Self-Awareness

  • Chimpanzees, orangutans, dolphins, and humans have passed the mirror test, indicating self-awareness.
  • The mirror test assesses an individual's ability to recognize themselves in a mirror.

Self-Concept

  • Self-concept refers to an individual's understanding of themselves, including their values, beliefs, and personality traits.
  • Self-concept is shaped by self-schemas, which are mental frameworks that organize information about oneself.

Affective Forecasting

  • Affective forecasting is the process of predicting how one will feel in the future.
  • The impact bias refers to the tendency to overestimate the duration of emotional states, particularly negative ones.

Introspection

  • Introspection is the process of examining one's own thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.

Music and Mood

  • A study on background music and mood found that music can influence emotional states, with fast music increasing energy and slow music increasing relaxation.

Self-Perception Theory

  • The self-perception theory suggests that people form attitudes and beliefs about themselves by observing their own behavior and the circumstances in which it occurs.

Over Justification Effect

  • The over justification effect occurs when people attribute their behavior to external factors, rather than internal motivations.

Social Comparison

  • Social comparison is the process of evaluating oneself by comparing oneself to others.
  • The purpose of social comparison is to assess one's abilities, opinions, and values.
  • Upward comparison can lead to decreased self-perception, while downward comparison can lead to increased self-perception.

Facial Expressions and Emotions

  • The facial feedback hypothesis suggests that facial expressions can influence emotional states.
  • A study by Marzoli et al. (2013) found that facial expressions can influence emotional states, with participants who smiled more reporting increased happiness.

Cultures and Self-Identity

  • Collectivist cultures prioritize group identity, while individualistic cultures prioritize individual identity.
  • Self-esteem tends to be higher in individualistic cultures.

Autobiographical Memory

  • Autobiographical memory is a type of memory that focuses on personal experiences and events.
  • The main purpose of autobiographical memory is to maintain a sense of self-continuity.

Regulation and Self-Presentation

  • Self-regulation is the process of controlling one's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors to achieve a personal or social goal.
  • Strategic self-presentation involves deliberately presenting oneself in a particular way to achieve a goal.
  • The spotlight effect is the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others are paying attention to one's behavior.

Additional Notes

  • The study by Wood et al. (2000) found that people tend to compare themselves to others who are similar to them.
  • According to Baumeister (1991), people may use distraction, repression, or suppression to stop thinking about something.
  • The sociometer theory suggests that people seek social approval from others to maintain a sense of self-worth.

"Understanding the Impact of Comparing Ourselves to Others: Emotion Quiz" - Test your knowledge on how our emotions can be influenced by comparing ourselves to others. Explore the results of a study involving the injection of adrenaline and its effects on different groups.

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