Clinical Microbiology: Specimen Collection Quiz

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44 Questions

Which stain technique is used for the direct stains on day 1 of the laboratory specimen process?

Gram stain

What is the size range of viruses based on the information provided?

20 – 30 nm

Which type of cells have a nuclear membrane and divide by mitosis?

Eukaryotic

What is the method of reproduction for fungi, based on the information provided?

Reproduction via sexual or asexual spores

What is the importance of collecting a sufficient quantity of specimen?

To ensure accurate identification of the infectious process

Why is it important to prevent contamination of the specimen during collection?

To ensure reliable laboratory results

In which type of bottle should a specimen from superficial wounds and catheter sites be collected?

Amies Transport Medium

Why is it important to collect meaningful specimens before the administration of antimicrobials?

To ensure accurate identification of the infectious process

Which lab process involves rapid decolourization with acetone/alcohol and counter staining with safranin?

Gram Stain

Which bacteria are characterized by their growth requirements such as aerobic, facultative anaerobe, strict anaerobe, and capnophilic (fastidious)?

Enterobacteriaceae

Which bacterium is responsible for causing anthrax?

Bacillus anthracis

Which bacterium is associated with Pseudomembranous colitis and antimicrobial-associated colitis?

Clostridium difficile

Which lab process involves the identification of pathogens and sensitivities after incubation and examination?

Day 2,3 Incubation/Examination

Which bacterium belongs to the family Streptococcaceae and is also known as Group A Strep?

Streptococcus pyogenes

What is the most likely reason for the 'Mixed growth of doubtful clinical significance' in Urine Report Case #1?

Presence of multiple pathogens with low colony counts

Which organism is sensitive to Erythromycin, Levofloxacin, and Penicillin based on the Sputum Report Case?

Streptococcus pneumoniae

What does the presence of MRSA and VRE in the nares/rectal samples indicate?

Significant risk of antimicrobial resistance transmission

What is the main purpose of Surveillance in relation to Antimicrobial Resistant Organisms (AROs)?

To determine baseline activity within the organization

Which bacterium is responsible for causing non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and conjunctivitis?

Chlamydia trachomatis

Which fungus is characterized by dichotomous branching at approximately 45 degrees and is a common cause of pulmonary aspergillosis and systemic dissemination?

Aspergillus fumigatus

Which organism does NOT have a cell wall and is commonly found in the urogenital tract causing prostatitis, vaginosis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and neonatal infections?

Mycoplasma hominis

Which yeast is characterized by the presence of pseudo hyphae, which are chains of budding yeast, and is a normal flora of mucous membranes?

Candida albicans

Which parasite causes a parasitic infection transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes and requires CBC smear for detection?

Plasmodium falciparum

Which bacterium is an opportunistic invader in immunodeficient individuals and is commonly associated with infections in superficial wounds and catheter sites?

Acinetobacter

Which virus is similar to Coronavirus but not the same, and is characterized by enveloped, positive ssRNA and respiratory droplet and airborne transmission?

SARS

Which major subtype of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus is the biggest concern for young children?

Subtype B

Which organization provides Disease Prevention & Control Guidelines in Canada?

Public Health Agency of Canada

Which virus has 13 major types of hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 major types of neuraminidase (NA), and is used to determine its subtype?

Influenza Type A

Which variant of concern is known as OMICRON and has subvariants such as BA.2, BA.5, BA.7, and XBB.1.5?

B.1.1.529

Which virus, from the Orthomyxoviridae family, was responsible for the pandemic known as H1N1 in 1918?

Influenza Type A

What is the recommended quantity of specimen to be collected for a Pediatric Bottle?

2-4ml

Why is it important to collect meaningful specimens before the administration of antimicrobials?

To ensure accurate identification of pathogens

What type of specimen should be collected from superficial wounds and catheter sites?

Aerobic bottle

What is the main purpose of storing specimens at appropriate temperatures?

To ensure accurate examination in the laboratory

Which classification of microorganisms does not have a cell wall?

Virus

What is the size range of Chlamydia based on the given information?

20 – 30 nm - 0.1 µm

Which type of cells divide by mitosis and have a nuclear membrane?

Eukaryotic

Which type of reproduction involves the production of sexual or asexual spores?

Fungus

Which bacteria are characterized by their growth requirements such as aerobic, facultative anaerobe, strict anaerobe, and capnophilic (fastidious)?

Enterobacteriaceae

What lab process involves rapid decolourization with acetone/alcohol and counter staining with safranin?

Gram stain

Which bacterium is responsible for causing anthrax?

Bacillus cereus

What is the main purpose of Surveillance in relation to Antimicrobial Resistant Organisms (AROs)?

Tracking the spread of AROs

What is the importance of collecting a sufficient quantity of specimen?

To avoid false negative results

Which virus is similar to Coronavirus but not the same, and is characterized by enveloped, positive ssRNA and respiratory droplet and airborne transmission?

Influenza virus

Study Notes

Microbiology Laboratory Specimen Process

  • The Gram stain technique is used for direct stains on day 1 of the laboratory specimen process.
  • Viruses range in size from 20-400 nm.

Cell Types

  • Eukaryotic cells have a nuclear membrane and divide by mitosis.

Fungi

  • Fungi reproduce by producing sexual or asexual spores.

Specimen Collection

  • A sufficient quantity of specimen is important to ensure accurate results.
  • Preventing contamination of the specimen during collection is crucial to maintain the integrity of the sample.
  • Specimens from superficial wounds and catheter sites should be collected in a specific type of bottle.
  • Collecting meaningful specimens before the administration of antimicrobials is important to ensure the accuracy of the results.

Laboratory Processes

  • The Romanowsky stain technique involves rapid decolourization with acetone/alcohol and counter staining with safranin.
  • The identification of pathogens and sensitivities occurs after incubation and examination.

Bacteria

  • Bacillus anthracis is responsible for causing anthrax.
  • Clostridium difficile is associated with Pseudomembranous colitis and antimicrobial-associated colitis.
  • Streptococcus pyogenes belongs to the family Streptococcaceae and is also known as Group A Strep.
  • Bacteria are classified based on their growth requirements, such as aerobic, facultative anaerobe, strict anaerobe, and capnophilic (fastidious).

Viruses

  • The Influenza virus has 13 major types of hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 major types of neuraminidase (NA), and is used to determine its subtype.
  • The Omicron variant is a concern and has subvariants such as BA.2, BA.5, BA.7, and XBB.1.5.
  • The Influenza virus, from the Orthomyxoviridae family, was responsible for the pandemic known as H1N1 in 1918.
  • The Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) has a major subtype that is a big concern for young children.

Fungi and Parasites

  • Aspergillus is characterized by dichotomous branching at approximately 45 degrees and is a common cause of pulmonary aspergillosis and systemic dissemination.
  • Mycoplasma does not have a cell wall and is commonly found in the urogenital tract, causing prostatitis, vaginosis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and neonatal infections.
  • Candida is characterized by the presence of pseudo hyphae, which are chains of budding yeast, and is a normal flora of mucous membranes.
  • Plasmodium causes a parasitic infection transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes and requires CBC smear for detection.

Organisms and Infections

  • Chlamydia ranges in size from 200-1000 nm.
  • MRSA and VRE in the nares/rectal samples indicate colonization.
  • The main purpose of Surveillance in relation to Antimicrobial Resistant Organisms (AROs) is to monitor and control the spread of resistant organisms.
  • Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for causing non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and conjunctivitis.

Miscellaneous

  • The Public Health Agency of Canada provides Disease Prevention & Control Guidelines.
  • The recommended quantity of specimen to be collected for a Pediatric Bottle is 1-2 mL.
  • The main purpose of storing specimens at appropriate temperatures is to maintain the integrity of the sample.

Test your knowledge of specimen collection processes in clinical microbiology with this quiz. Learn about the importance of correct specimen collection and the key considerations for ensuring the specimen is representative of the infectious process.

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