Class 12th Chemistry: Name Reactions Overview

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12 Questions

What type of compounds are combined in Claisen condensation?

Allyl compounds

Which reaction facilitates the construction of a C=C bond via nucleophilic addition of carbonyl groups?

Aldol condensation

What is the application of Claisen condensation?

All of the above

Which reaction offers a deeper appreciation of organic chemistry by elucidating mechanisms behind complex molecules?

Michael Addition

What role do carbanions play in Claisen condensation?

React with carbonyls

Which reaction allows for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds to amino derivatives?

Houben-Hoesch Reaction

What type of reaction is the Friedel-Crafts reaction?

Electrophilic aromatic substitution

Who are the scientists that the Friedel-Crafts reaction is named after?

Charles Friedel and James Crafts

Which of the following is not involved in the Friedel-Crafts reaction?

Hydrogen peroxide

What is the main product obtained from a Cannizzaro reaction?

Carboxylic acid

When was the Cannizzaro reaction discovered?

1861

Which reaction among the five mentioned is known for resolving equimolar mixtures of enantiomers?

Cannizzaro reaction

Study Notes

Class 12th Chemistry Name Reactions

As you delve into advanced organic chemistry during your class 12 studies, several key reactions stand out due to their historical significance, versatility, and impactful results. These namesake reactions have paved the path for countless chemical discoveries and continue to influence modern synthetic methodologies today. In this overview, we'll explore five of these renowned processes—the Friedel-Crafts reaction, Cannizzaro reaction, Claisen condensation, Aldol condensation, and some other notable name reactions—to expand your understanding beyond simple textbook definitions.

Friedel-Crafts Reaction

The first established name reaction is named after Charles Friedel and James Crafts. Originally discovered around 1877, it involves electrophilic aromatic substitution of ortho, para positions on benzene rings with various alkyl or aryl groups using Lewis acids like AlCl₃. This reaction has found significant utility in pharmaceutical synthesis and biologically active compound production.

Cannizzaro Reaction

Discovered by Stanislao Cannizzo in 1861, this redox reaction occurs between an aldehyde and an alcohol in acidic media, yielding a carboxylic acid and a new aldehyde or ketone. Although less widely used compared to others, the Cannizzaro reaction nevertheless plays a role in resolving equimolar mixtures of enantiomers and providing alternative routes to natural products.

Claisen Condensation

Named for its inventor Victor Grignard's former student, Ernst Otto Fischer, later succeeded by Georg Henry Louis Claisen, who further developed the process, Claisen condensation combines two allyl compounds through elimination and deprotonation steps under basic conditions. It generates carbanions, which subsequently react with carbonyls resulting in β-hydroxy esters formation. Applications span polymerization and producing chiral building blocks.

Aldol Condensation

This classic reaction originated from the work of Theodor Curtius and Adolf von Baeyer in 1886. It facilitates the construction of C=C bond via nucleophilic addition of one carbonyl group onto another, followed by subsequent intramolecular deprotonation. Aldol condensations are crucial for characterizing stereochemistry and understanding biological systems. Furthermore, they serve as essential precursors towards complex molecules such as terpenoids and vitamin B5.

Other Name Reactions

While the above four constitute fundamental staples within organic chemistry curricula, there exist numerous additional name reactions worth mentioning. Some of them include:

  • Houben-Hoesch Reaction: Aromatic nitro compounds can be reduced to amino derivatives under specific conditions.
  • Knoevenagel Condensation: Carbon-carbon double bonds form in reactions involving aldehydes and active methylene compounds.
  • Michael Addition: Nucleophiles attack the α position of carbon-carbon double bonds, yielding β-substituted carbons.
  • Peterson Olefination: An intermediate olefin forms when an oxonium ion reacts with an alkyne.

These name reactions offer students a comprehensive view of how organic chemists manipulate molecular structures to create novel compounds and elucidate mechanisms underlying life's most fascinating processes. They represent stepping stones to a deeper appreciation of the marvelous world of organic chemistry.

Explore the historical significance and applications of key name reactions in organic chemistry, including Friedel-Crafts reaction, Cannizzaro reaction, Claisen condensation, and Aldol condensation. Delve into the mechanisms, utility in synthesis, and impact on modern chemical discoveries.

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