Chemistry: Periodic Table and Elements

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5 Questions

What is the definition of atomic radius (AR)?

The average distance between the outer electrons and the nucleus.

Why does the ionic radius of an anion increase as it gains electrons?

Due to effective nuclear charge being reduced and electron cloud expanding.

Which sublevel is involved in the formation of Fe+3 ion?

$4s^0 3d^5$

What happens to the effective nuclear charge as cations are formed?

It increases

In comparison to a neutral atom, how does the ionic radius of an anion (X-2) typically relate?

$X-2 > X- > X$

Study Notes

The Periodic Table

  • The Periodic Law is the arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic number, with repetition of their physical and chemical properties.
  • Electron configurations of any element can be determined from its position in the Periodic Table.

s-Block Elements

  • Group 1 (1A) elements end with ns1 configuration (alkali metals).
  • Group 2 (2A) elements end with ns2 configuration (alkaline earth metals).

p-Block Elements

  • General configuration: ns2np1, ns2np2, ns2np3, ns2np4, and ns2np5.
  • Includes halogens.

Ion Formation

  • General rule: remove all electrons with the highest ns value.
  • For metals:
    • Remove ns electrons first.
    • Examples: Na ([Ne] 3s1) → Na+ ([Ne] 3s0), Mg ([Ne] 3s2) → Mg+2 ([Ne] 3s0), Al ([Ne] 3s2p1) → Al+3 ([Ne] 3s0p0).
  • For non-metals: add electrons to the highest np orbital.

Learn about the periodic table, s-block, p-block, and d-block elements, as well as coordination compounds in this quiz. Explore the arrangement of elements based on increasing atomic number and their physical and chemical properties.

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