Chapter 12: Solutions in Chemistry (Class 12)

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12 Questions

What is a multinary solution?

A solution with multiple solutes dissolved in a single solvent

Which concentration unit is commonly expressed as mass percentage (% m/m)?

Mole fraction (X)

Boiling point elevation and freezing point depression are examples of:

Colligative properties

What does osmotic pressure ((Π)) depend on?

Number of particles in the solution

What kind of mixture is a solution?

Homogeneous

What does solubility refer to?

The amount of solute that can dissolve in a solvent

What property defines the maximum amount of solute a given solvent will hold at equilibrium temperature and pressure?

Solubility

Which factor can affect the solubility of a substance in a solvent?

Presence of other solutes

What method involves titrating a standard solution with another solution containing unknown concentration?

Volumetric analysis

In which type of solution are solids cooled until they dissolve completely at a constant temperature?

Saturated solution

What technique involves mixing known amounts of solute and solvent to prepare a solution?

Dissolution

Which property varies depending on factors like temperature and nature of the substance itself?

Solubility limit

Study Notes

Chapter 12: Solutions in Chemistry (Class 12)

Solving chemical problems often involves understanding solutions – homogeneous mixtures where components are distributed evenly throughout. In this chapter from your Class 12 curriculum, we'll explore types of solutions, their concentration units, colligative properties, solubility, and methods used to prepare solutions.

Type of Solutions

A solution can consist of either one solute dissolved in a single solvent (unary), two solutes dissolved in a common solvent (binary), or multiple solutes dissolved in a single solvent (multinary). Each type has its unique characteristics and applications.

Concentration Units

There are several ways to express the composition of a solution, with mass percentage (% m/m) being commonly employed. Other options include mole fraction ((X)), molality ((m)), normality ((N)), and molarity ((M)). These concentration units help us understand how much solute is present in the solution relative to the total volume or weight of the mixture.

Colligative Properties

Colligative properties depend solely upon the number of particles (atoms, ions, or molecules) present in a solution rather than specific constituents. Some examples of this class of properties are boiling point elevation ((\Delta T_b)), freezing point depression ((\Delta T_f)), osmotic pressure ((\Pi)), and vapor pressure lowering ((p^\circ - p)). Knowledge of these properties helps analyze and predict behavior under varying conditions.

Solubility

The maximum amount of solute a given solvent will hold at equilibrium temperature and pressure defines the solubility limit. This property varies depending on factors like temperature, presence of other solutes ( competitive effects ), and nature of the substance itself. For example, solid lead bromide (PbBr₂) is more soluble in water compared to ammonia due to differences in intermolecular forces in each solvent.

Methods Used to Prepare Solutions

Some typical techniques involved in preparing solutions include mixing known amounts of solute and solvent, saturated solutions (by cooling solids until they dissolve completely at a constant temperature), and using volumetric analysis (titrating a standard solution with another solution containing unknown concentration).

In summary, understanding solutions, their concentrations, colligative properties, solubility limits, and preparation techniques is essential when analyzing various phenomena in chemistry. By learning how to calculate and interpret relevant data based on these concepts, you can successfully tackle challenging problems in your examinations and beyond!

Explore the fundamentals of solutions in Chemistry with this Class 12 chapter. Learn about different types of solutions, concentration units, colligative properties, solubility, and methods used to prepare solutions. Enhance your understanding of these essential concepts to excel in examinations and beyond.

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